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Group 4: Infrastructure Maintenance/Upgrade for Minimal Environmental Impact. Co-Leader Sohichi Hirose , Japan Co-Leader Ronaldo S. Gallardo, the Philippines Co-Leader Prasert Suwanvitaya, Thailand.

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Group 4 infrastructure maintenance upgrade for minimal environmental impact

Group 4:

Infrastructure Maintenance/Upgrade for Minimal Environmental Impact

Co-Leader Sohichi Hirose,Japan

Co-Leader Ronaldo S. Gallardo, the Philippines

Co-Leader Prasert Suwanvitaya, Thailand


Group 4 infrastructure maintenance upgrade for minimal environmental impact

1. Objectives and Research Topics : Group 4Infrastructure Maintenance/Upgrade for Minimal Environmental Impact

Objective

To propose materials, members and new technology for infrastructure of “reduced environmental impact type”


1 objectives and research topics group 4

1.Objectives and Research Topics : Group 4

Life of infrastructure

- Planning and design

- Construction

- Service

Reduction of adverse impact of infrastructure on the environment may be implemented at various stages.


1 objectives and research topics group 41

1.Objectives and Research Topics : Group 4

Life of infrastructure

- Planning and design

Environmental performance characteristics as well as standard ones should be considered.

The designer has an opportunity to choose eco-friendly materials and construction process as well as maintenance plan which lead to the least impact on the environment.

- Construction

- Service


1 objectives and research topics group 42

1.Objectives and Research Topics : Group 4

Life of infrastructure

- Planning and design

- Construction

- Service

For environmentally protective construction, periodic monitoring and testing should be carried out to check whether the construction conditions are satisfied.


1 objectives and research topics group 43

1.Objectives and Research Topics : Group 4

Life of infrastructure

- Planning and design

- Construction

- Service

The reduction of environmental impact may be achieved by extending the service life of infrastructure, for which maintenance technology, including monitoring andnondestructive evaluation is important.


1 objectives and research topics group 44

1.Objectives and Research Topics : Group 4

Main Research Topics

A. Utilization of Unused and Waste Materials

B. Durability and Maintenance Problems

B.1 Durability of infrastructures

B.2 Monitoring technology for existing

infrastructures and materials

B.3 Retrofitting technology


2 overview of research outcomes group 4

2. Overview of Research Outcomes: Group 4

  • Utilization of Unused and Waste Materials

  • - Basic material and mechanical properties of unused aggregates, industrial by-products like bottom ash and fly ash and recycled materials of eco-cement, recycled aggregate and recycled PET bottle fibers were tested to investigate the utilization for construction materials.

  • - Natural resources of bamboo, sisal or coir fibers were mixed to improve the mechanical properties of concrete with the Mt. Pinatubo aggregates.

  • - The environmental affect of heavy metals contained in bottom ash was discussed.


2 overview of research outcomes group 41

2. Overview of Research Outcomes: Group 4

B. Durability and Maintenance Problems

B.1 Durability of infrastructures

- Concrete deterioration and corrosion behavior of steel bars due to various environmental conditions have been investigated.

- Performance of weathering steels was evaluated under different environments in Asian-Pacific region.

- Various structural designissues related to new structure model, dynamic bridge analysis, environmental effect on steel and concrete bridges, fracture and fatigue of steel structures and reinforced concrete structures have been investigated.


2 overview of research outcomes group 42

2. Overview of Research Outcomes: Group 4

B.2 Monitoring technology for

infrastructures and materials

- Sensors and processing equipments for measurement of strain, displacement, velocity, temperature etc. andweigh-in-motion monitoring system have been developed for bridge maintenance.

Weigh-in-motion : live load monitoring system

to estimate the vehicle weight from measured

strain data while vehicles pass on the bridge.

- Fundamental theory and applications of ultrasonic nondestructive testing have been developed.


2 overview of research outcomes group 43

2. Overview of Research Outcomes: Group 4

B.3 Retrofitting technology

- Innovative repair and retrofitting technology for concrete, soil, and steelhas been developed.

concrete: electrodeposition method,

cathodic protection

soil: electrochemical technique


3 book contents group 4

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5. Built environment: Design of infrastructure with

reduced environmental impact

2.5.1 Introduction

2.5.2. Design of environmental-load reduction

oriented structures

2.5.3. Use of eco-friendly materials

2.5.4. Monitoring technology and nondestructive testing

for existing infrastructures

2.5.5. Repair and retrofit technologies

3.8. Use of eco-friendly materials in the Philippines

and Thailand

3.9. Monitoring of weathering steel and of existing

bridges


3 book contents group 41

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5. Built environment: Design of infrastructure with

reduced environmental impact

2.5.1 Introduction

2.5.2. Design of environmental-load reduction

oriented structures

2.5.3. Use of eco-friendly materials

2.5.4. Monitoring technology and nondestructive testing

for existing infrastructures

2.5.5. Repair and retrofit technologies

3.8. Use of eco-friendly materials in the Philippines

and Thailand

3.9. Monitoring of weathering steel and of existing

bridges


3 book contents group 42

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.2. Design of environmental-load reduction

oriented structures

Designing ofenvironmental-load-reduction-oriented structure

Profitability

Safety

Usability

Workability

Required

standard

function

Pollution

Waste disposal

Required

environmental

function

Scenic beauty

Regional land area and water region

Regional

environmental

load-reduction

Regional eco-system

Resource consumption

Global

environmental

load-reduction

JSCE, Guidelines for Design of Environmental-Load-Reduction-Oriented Structures, 2001

Resource recycling

Global atmospheric area and water region


3 book contents group 43

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.2. Design of environmental-load reduction

oriented structures

conventional

design

Designing ofenvironmental-load-reduction-oriented structure

Profitability

Safety

Usability

Workability

Required

standard

function

Pollution

Waste disposal

Required

environmental

function

Scenic beauty

Regional land area and water region

Regional

environmental

load-reduction

Regional eco-system

Resource consumption

Global

environmental

load-reduction

JSCE, Guidelines for Design of Environmental-Load-Reduction-Oriented Structures, 2001

Resource recycling

Global atmospheric area and water region


3 book contents group 44

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.2. Design of environmental-load reduction

oriented structures

conventional

design

Designing ofenvironmental-load-reduction-oriented structure

Profitability

Safety

Usability

Workability

Required

standard

function

Pollution

Waste disposal

Required

environmental

function

Scenic beauty

Regional land area and water region

Regional

environmental

load-reduction

Regional eco-system

Resource consumption

Global

environmental

load-reduction

JSCE, Guidelines for Design of Environmental-Load-Reduction-Oriented Structures, 2001

Resource recycling

Global atmospheric area and water region


3 book contents group 45

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.2. Design of environmental-load reduction

oriented structures

Summary and recommendations

In the design of structures, the overall evaluation of regional and global environmental factors, in addition to conventional standard structure evaluation items, is necessary.

We need to develop proper technology and techniques for effective and quantitative environmental evaluation.


3 book contents group 46

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.3. Use of eco-friendly materials

What are eco-friendly materials?

materials that are either naturally occurring or by-products that may be used in composites (mortar, concrete, etc.) for the purpose of reducing the requirement for cement and/or imparting other properties beneficial to a given application.

Naturally occurring materials :

volcanic ash, agricultural wastes (rice husk ash,

coconut husk, etc.)

Industrial by-products:

fly ash, bottom ash, slag, etc.


3 book contents group 47

A

  • Standard material tests

  • chemical

  • physical

  • mechanical

  • mineralogical

  • etc.

For future consideration

Composite material preparation

  • Performance tests

  • Strength

    parameters

  • Durability

    parameters

  • Aesthetics

  • etc.

N

  • Usage of material

  • Cementitious

    material

  • Pozzolanic

    material

  • Fine aggregate

  • Coarse

    aggregate

  • etc.

  • Form of

  • composite

  • mortar

  • concrete

  • RC

  • etc.

Processing

Acceptable performance?

Y

Can be economically processed?

N

Characteristic similar to known material?

Y

Use in intended application and prepare specifications

N

Y

For future consideration

Can pass requirements for known material?

N

Y

Use just as the known material but verify performance

A

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.3. Use of eco-friendly materials

Performance testing on composites

If the new material satisfies the standard specifications for a known material, then it can be used as a substitute for the known material. On the other hand, if the new material is similar in some respect to a known material but does not satisfy all the standard requirements of the known material, the new material may then be used in composites, and the performance of the composite will be subjected to testing.


3 book contents group 48

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.3. Use of eco-friendly materials

Low quality coarse aggregates from Asia-Pacific region

Tokyo

Nicaragua

Okinawa

Philippines

Kiribati


3 book contents group 49

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.3. Use of eco-friendly materials

Low quality coarse aggregates from Asia-Pacific region

Okinawa Aggregate

Philippines Aggregate

Nicaragua Aggregate

Kiribati Aggregate

Normal Aggregate


3 book contents group 410

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.3. Use of eco-friendly materials

Low quality coarse aggregates from Asia-Pacific region

When the cement-water (C/W) ratio is low, the type of coarse aggregate does not much influence on the strength.

On the other hand, the difference of properties of concrete with various kinds of aggregate can be clearly seen when the cement-water ratio is high.


3 book contents group 411

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.3. Use of eco-friendly materials

Low quality coarse aggregates from Asia-Pacific region

Strength and chloride ion diffusion coefficient of the concrete using the low quality coarse aggregates from Asia-Pacific region can be improved by using the proposed methods such as coating of coarse aggregate before mixing or combined use with normal aggregate.


3 book contents group 412

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.3. Use of eco-friendly materials

Volcanic ash - Pinatubo Aggregates with Natural Fiber

Pinatubo concrete has not enough performance. To improve the property of Pinatubo concrete, natural fiber and crushed stone are added.

1) Natural fiber

Density:1.35kg/ℓAbsorption : 33.6%

coir, bamboo, sisal

2) Crushed Stone (CS)

Density: 2.63kg/ℓ Absorption: 0.53%


3 book contents group 413

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.3. Use of eco-friendly materials

Volcanic ash - Pinatubo Aggregates with Natural Fiber

RC beam test to investigate

shear carrying capacity

+ CS & fiber

+ CS

+ fiber

Load displacement curves of RC beams

(0-00 means no crushed stone and no fiber while 30-10S means 30 percent crushed stone content and 10 percent sisal fiber content)


3 book contents group 414

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.3. Use of eco-friendly materials

Summary and recommendations

Specific recommendations are as follows:

1. Development of material specifications for new

eco-friendly materials

2. Establishment of performance standards for

composites/structures using eco-friendly materials

3. Development of standard testing procedures for

materials and composites

Also, documentation of applications of eco-friendly

materials as well as long-term monitoring of

performance of structures using eco-friendly

materials is in order.


3 book contents group 415

?? tf

Calculate

Strain

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.4. Monitoring technology and nondestructive

testing for existing infrastructures

Monitoring technology - Weigh-In-Motion

Low-cost measurement system to obtain the weight of vehicle

Principle of Weigh-In-Motion:

Dynamic Strain = Weight of vehicle × Influence line

Measurement

Calibration


3 book contents group 416

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.4. Monitoring technology and nondestructive

testing for existing infrastructures

Monitoring technology - Weigh-In-Motion

Conventional

portable system

New simplified

portable system


3 book contents group 417

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.4. Monitoring technology and nondestructive

testing for existing infrastructures

Monitoring technology - Weigh-In-Motion

Vehicle for reference

(four-axle truck)

Strain history

for reference

Measurement field /

Mabalacat Bridge

Strain history

for target vehicle

Target vehicle with

empty bed


3 book contents group 418

Results obtained by Simplified WIM

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.4. Monitoring technology and nondestructive

testing for existing infrastructures

Monitoring technology - Weigh-In-Motion


3 book contents group 419

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.4. Monitoring technology and nondestructive

testing for existing infrastructures

Monitoring technology - Weigh-In-Motion

Portable Train Weighing

System : WEIGHWELL

Axle weight histogram

Minor's

hypothesis

Percent fatigue damage for southbound at Donmuang Station (left)

andeastbound at Chachoengsao Station (right)


3 book contents group4

3. Book Contents: Group4

2.5.4. Monitoring technology and nondestructive

testing for existing infrastructures

Summary and recommendations

To maintain existing structures properly, the

performance of structures has to be evaluated

quantitatively by using suitable technology and

techniques.

Although many monitoring technology and non-

destructive testing methods are already available,

new technology and techniques need to be developed

continuously for more reliable maintenanceand

examined for long-term usability.


3 book contents group 420

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.5. Repair and retrofit technologies

Reinforced concrete

Repair:

material replacement (replacement of concrete or steel),

material enhancement (such as re-alkalization technique),

repair of cracks (epoxy injection, electrodeposition, etc.),

material protection (cathodic protection, etc.)

Retrofit

section modification (addition of concrete or steel volume)

provision of additional reinforcement

(steel jacketing, use of synthetic fibers and laminates, etc.)


3 book contents group 421

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.5. Repair and retrofit technologies

Soil improvement

expulsion of moisture

application of surcharge to accelerate consolidation

mechanical compaction

mixing with binder (lime, cement, etc.)

electrochemical technique

Steel structure – fatigue

removal of crack, re-weld

surface treatments such as TIG dressing and peening

re-weld + postweld surface treatments

bolted splice, shape improving,

stop hole,

modification of connection detail

ultrasonic impact method

low-temperature transformation welding electrode


3 book contents group 422

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.5. Repair and retrofit technologies

Reinforced concrete

Repair:

material replacement (replacement of concrete or steel),

material enhancement (such as re-alkalization technique),

repair of cracks (epoxy injection, electrodeposition, etc.),

material protection (cathodic protection, etc.)

Retrofit

section modification (addition of concrete or steel volume)

provision of additional reinforcement

(steel jacketing, use of synthetic fibers and laminates, etc.)


3 book contents group 423

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.5. Repair and retrofit technologies

Repair of cracks (electrodeposition)

Conventional Conditions

Proposed Conditions

External Solution: Mg(CH3COO)2

Solution Concentration:1.0mol/L

Current Density:0.1A/m2

External Solution: Mg(CH3COO)2

Solution Concentration:0.1mol/L

Current Density:1.0A/m2

2.0 cm

2.0 cm

Steel bar

Steel bar

Crack is closed perfectly using newly proposed conditions.


3 book contents group 424

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.5. Repair and retrofit technologies

Repair of cracks (electrodeposition)

Sound part

Cover depth

Depth of Crack Closure(mm)

ProposedCondition

Conventional

Condition

Depth of Chloride Ion Penetration(mm)

Resistance against chloride ion penetration through the crack part becomes the same as that in the sound part using this proposed conditions.


Group 4 infrastructure maintenance upgrade for minimal environmental impact

3. Book Contents: Group 4

2.5.5. Repair and retrofit technologies

Summary and recommendations

Many techniques for repair and retrofit for concrete, soil, and steel are already available in practice and in literature.

In general, repair and retrofit will only be called upon if there were lapses in the design, construction, or maintenance, or if there are some intervening incidents or decisions that will affect the performance or function of the structure.

The effectiveness of repair and retrofit techniques will be largely determined by the results of inspection, characterization, and analysis of the problem. This will be facilitated if good documentation on the materials, construction, usage, and environment conditions is available for the structure in question.


4 conclusions group 4

4. Conclusions : Group 4

Various techniques and methodology were proposed to reduce the adverse impact of infrastructure on the environment during the phases of planning and design, construction and actual service. This can be achieved if planners and designers use a paradigm that considers harmony between infrastructure development and the environment.

Production of materials for infrastructure is environmentally disruptive so a shift to the use of eco-friendly materials such as the wastes and recycled materials should be considered. To extend the lifespan of existing infrastructures, monitoring and testing technologies as well as repair and retrofitting technologies were also discussed.

For practical application, it is necessary to examine the long-term usability of new techniques and methodology and to develop documentation and specification.


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