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ACTG 4310. Chapter 10 – Fundamentals of Cost Management. Activity-Based Cost Management. Used to control activities Add value Give detailed information about product costs Provide better information about the cost of activities and processes Allows one to perform activity analysis

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Actg 4310

ACTG 4310

Chapter 10 – Fundamentals of Cost Management


Activity based cost management
Activity-Based Cost Management

  • Used to control activities

  • Add value

  • Give detailed information about product costs

  • Provide better information about the cost of activities and processes

  • Allows one to perform activity analysis

  • Helps with cost reduction and process improvement decisions

  • Helps with product pricing/ product-mix decisions


Adding value
Adding Value

  • Identify what the customer wants or expects from the process

  • Chart the activities used to complete the product or service

  • Classify all activities as value-added or nonvalue-added

  • Continuously improve the efficiency of value-added activities and eliminate non-value added activities.


Activity analysis of cost hierarchies
Activity Analysis of Cost Hierarchies

  • Unit level

    • Volume based

    • Tough to change these costs

  • Batch level

    • Good place to make improvements

  • Product level

    • Good place to make improvements

  • Customer level

    • Good place to make improvements

  • Facility level

    • Depends on the capacity determined by management

    • Hard to change in the short-run


Abc of customers
ABC of Customers

  • Customer Profitability Analysis

    • Determine the revenue per customer

    • Determine the direct costs of the customer

    • Determine the activities used by customers and multiply by the activity rate

    • Determine the total net income per customer

    • If considering dropping the customer,

      • Only those costs and revenues that can be eliminated if client is dropped should be considered

      • Consider opportunity costs of time spent on client

      • Consider effects on other clients

      • Consider nonfinancial considerations


Abc of suppliers
ABC of Suppliers

  • Essentially the same analysis as ABC of customers

  • Look at the following characteristics of suppliers:

    • Accuracy of deliveries

    • Time of deliveries

    • Quality of goods and services

  • Include the costs to correct failures to purchase price paid


Managing the cost of capacity
Managing the Cost of Capacity

  • Resources used = cost driver rate x cost driver volume

  • Resources supplied = expenditures spent on the activity

  • Unused resource capacity = Resources supplied – Resources used


Activity based income statement
Activity-based Income Statement

  • Different from the traditional income statement (which shows resources supplied only)

  • Shows resources used, resources supplied, and unused resource capacity

  • Can list amounts by cost hierarchy (unit, batch, product/customer, capacity)

  • Managers can try to manage the unused resources effectively



Computing the cost of unused capacity
Computing the Cost of Unused Capacity

  • Actual activity – actual volume for period

  • Normal activity – long-run expected volume

  • Practical capacity – includes scheduled maintenance and breaks

  • Theoretical capacity – ideal conditions

  • Theoretical capacity will have the lowest costs per unit


Cost of unused capacity
Cost of Unused Capacity

  • Should not be assigned to products unless seasonal

  • Should be a period cost

  • Calculating it makes managers aware of the cost

  • If seasonal demand affects capacity

    • Cost of unused capacity should be to assigned to seasonal customers only, not to off-season customers


Quality
Quality

  • Quality has become very important in today’s competitive environment.

  • Definition – total features and characteristics of a product or a service made or performed according to specifications to satisfy customers at the time of purchase and during use.


Quality1
Quality

  • Customer Viewpoint (External)

    • Service

    • Quality

    • Cost

    • Customer satisfaction measures

  • Company Viewpoint (Internal)

    • Technical measurements

    • Zero defects

    • Value-added versus non-value added

    • Total quality control


Classification of quality costs
Classification of Quality Costs

  • Prevention costs – preclude nonconformance with specifications

  • Appraisal costs – tests to determine conformance with specifications

  • Internal failure costs – redo defective products in order to sell as a normal product

  • External failure costs - costs incurred to right defective products in customer’s hands

  • Prevention costs best, external failure costs worst


Measurement
Measurement

  • Lost profits – due to having to sell products at lower prices

  • Opportunity costs – forgone sales due to defective products (word of mouth to friends)

    • Not an accounting cost in the general ledger but a true economic cost

  • Cost of quality report


Quality programs
Quality Programs

  • Just-in Time

    • Throughput time – total time from when a product starts the production process until it is ready for sale.

  • Six Sigma – 3 defects per million

  • Lean manufacturing and accounting – Eliminate all non-value added activities

  • Lean Six Sigma

  • TQM programs cause accounting changes in the firm


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