Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies
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Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies. André Bouville (NCI, retired) and Vladimir Drozdovitch (NCI) Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer Tokyo, Japan, 22 February 2014. Outline. Background information Principles of dose reconstruction

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Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies

Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies

André Bouville(NCI, retired) and

Vladimir Drozdovitch (NCI)

Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer

Tokyo, Japan, 22 February 2014


Outline

Outline

  • Background information

  • Principles of dose reconstruction

  • Examples of studies and dose estimates

  • Concluding remarks


Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies

Background information


Analytic epidemiologic studies

Analytic epidemiologic studies

  • Requirement:

    • Unbiased individual dose estimates for a large number of subjects

  • Examples of studies:

    • Chernobyl: UA-US and BY-US studies among children

    • Chernobyl: UA-US in utero study

    • Fallout: Marshall Islands study


Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies

Exposure Pathways


Pasture cow milk pathway 131 i

Pasture-cow-milk pathway (131I)


Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies

Principles of thyroid dose reconstruction in a large environmental study


Six principles of dose reconstruction

Six Principles of Dose Reconstruction

● Perform person-based measurements.

● Administer interviews.

● Conduct environmental measurements.

● Obtain realistic estimates of dose.

● Validate the dose estimates.

● Estimate the uncertainties attached to the dose estimates.


Principle 1 person based measurements

Principle #1: person-based measurements

● Objective: perform as many person-based measurements as possible.

● Rationale: dose estimates are much less uncertain when they are based on:

person-based measurements , than on

environmental radiation measurements, or on

data on activities released into the environment.


Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies

30

Measured

value.

0

25

20

I-131 activity (kBq)

15

10

5

0 20 40 60

20

40

60

Time after the accident(days)

Thyroid Dose Estimation (multiple measurements)

Thyroid dose is propor-tional to area under the curve


Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies

30

Measured

value.

25

20

I-131 activity (kBq)

15

10

5

0

0

20

40

60

Time (days)

Thyroid Dose Estimation (usual case)

Curve derived from 131I models plus data from questionnaire

Thyroid dose is propor-tional to area under the curve


Principle 2 personal interviews

Principle #2: personal interviews

● Objective: identify the conditions of radioiodine intake as early as possible.

● Rationale:

- the internal dose estimates are very sensitive to the conditions of radioiodine intake. It is important to clarify if inhalation occurred in a single day or over several days and if ingestion was a significant mode of exposure,

- because of memory loss, the personal interviews should be performed soon after the accident.


Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies

Personal interview


Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies

Questions to interviewees

(in case of exposure to 131I)

  • Inhalation: residence history (including number of hours spent indoors) during the first two months following the accident

  • Ingestion: consumption rates and origin (market or own garden) of water, milk, and leafy vegetables

  • Countermeasures: sheltering, evacuation, and/or stable iodine administration, if conducted


Principle 3 environmental measurements

Principle #3: environmental measurements

● Objective: development of a model predicting the variation with time of the intake rate of 131I.

● Rationale:

- environmental measurements (131I in air, water, soil, vegetation, foodstuffs + 137Cs in air and soil) are the best data that could supplement the person-based measurements,

- when environmental measurements are not available, estimates of released activities, combined with models of atmospheric transport, have to be used.


137 cs deposition map chernobyl accident

137Cs deposition map (Chernobyl accident)


Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies

Principle #4: realistic dose estimationPrinciple #5: validation of dose estimatesPrinciple #6: estimation of uncertainties

● Objectives: obtain realistic (unbiased) estimates of dose for all subjects of the epidemiologic study; make sure that the estimated doses are reasonably reliable; and quantify the uncertainties

● Rationale: the dose estimates have to be credible and arguments must exist to defend their credibility.


Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies

Examples of studies and dose estimates


Chornobyl accident 26 april 1986

Chornobyl Accident – 26 April 1986

The most severe

accident that

ever occurred in

the nuclear

power industry.


Nci chornobyl thyroid study

NCI Chornobyl thyroid study

  • Cohort study of about 25,000 subjects (13,000 Ukrainians and 12,000 Belarusians) exposed as children.

  • Lived in contaminated areas of Ukraine and Belarus.

  • All subjects had a person-based measurement (131I activity in the thyroid).


Distribution of thyroid dose estimates

Distribution of thyroid dose estimates


Distribution of gsd according to dose ukrainian cohort

Distribution of GSD according to dose (Ukrainian cohort)


In utero study of thyroid cancer in ukraine

In-utero study of thyroid cancer in Ukraine

Number of subjects: 2,584, including three groups:

  • Subgroup L1-C: 720 subjects. Their mothers:

    • lived in a contaminated area in April-June 1986; and

    • had a person-based measurement (131I activity in thyroid).

  • Subgroup L2-C: 776 subjects. Their mothers:

    • lived in a contaminated area in April-June 1986; and

    • did not have a person-based measurement, but a number of women from the same settlement of residence had such a measurement.

  • Subgroup L1-NC: 1088 subjects. Their mothers:

    • lived in a non-contaminated area in April-June 1986; and

    • did not have a person-bases measurement, and no other woman from the same settlement of residence had such a measurement.


Estimation of doses for the 2 584 in utero subjects

Estimation of doses for the 2,584 in-utero subjects

Sets of personal information

Subjects of

contaminated

areas

1496

Direct thyroid

measurements

(for 720 MOTHERS)

Individual Questionnaires

Subjects of

“non-contaminated”

areas

1088

History

of pregnancy

  • Behavior:

  • milk consumption

  • leafyvegetables

  • relocation


Results of in utero thyroid dose calculation

Resultsof in utero thyroid dose calculation


Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies

Nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands

1946-1958:

• 66 nuclear tests, ~100 MT

•Release of 131I:

150 Chernobyl

1500 Fukushima

• 1954: BRAVO test

Resulted in high doses in northern atolls and to evacuations.


Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies

  • There are significant differences in estimating internal doses for Marshallese compared to estimating doses to populations exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl or Fukushima accidents:

  • No animal milk products available.

  • 2)Unusual exposure pathways.


Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies

Marshall Islands: person-based measurements

Bioassay of urine from Rongelap community members collected within 16 to19 days of fallout exposure from the BRAVO test provided the first ever measurements to confirm 131I from exposure to fallout.


Estimates of thyroid dose mgy to adults

Estimates of thyroid dose (mGy) to adults


Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies

Concluding remarks


Concluding remarks 1 of 2

Concluding remarks (1 of 2)

  • All dose reconstructions are different because:

    • Radioactive releases are different

    • Environmental conditions are different

    • Population habits are different, and

    • Countermeasures are different.

  • However, there are principles of dose reconstruction that apply to all environmental studies.


Concluding remarks 2 of 2

Concluding remarks (2 of 2)

  • It is important to obtain realistic estimates of dose because:

    • they may be used in research projects such as epidemiologic studies or risk assessment,

    • the affected populations have the right to know the extent to which they were exposed to radiation.

  • Multi-agency cooperation and multi-disciplinary expertise is needed to obtain dose estimates of a high degree of reliability.


Thyroid dose estimation for epidemiologic studies

Thank you for your attention


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