First Experimental Proof of Raizer–Zeldovich Theorem (or RZ-Theory). SID SENADHEERA Mechanical Engineering Department Ryerson University. Different methods of producing nanofibers. Experimental Setup. Computer simulation of heat dissipation in laser ablation.
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SID SENADHEERAMechanical Engineering DepartmentRyerson University
Computersimulation of heat dissipation in laser ablation
* Initially, the vapor expansion proceeds along the Poisson adiabat with : PVγ= const.
P-V diagram with the Causius-Clapeyron equation
Condensation rate : dx/dt
Nucleation rate : dν/dt
Atomic clustering rate : dg/dt
x(t) = ν(t).g(t)
Nucleation rate can be expanded as :
*The sharp increment in nucleation occurs at phase transformation
*The time component for Graphite and Silicon can be theoretically graphed as below to estimate the times for phase transformations.
The first theoretical analysis of condensation dynamics in a rapidly expanding vapor was performed by
Raizer et al. in 1958. Anisimov et al. did the next detailed study on the theory with the results below.
(a) Temperature Variations
(d) Nucleation rate is ν(t)
(b) Supercooling Parameter
(e) Cluster dimension variation
(c) Vapor condensationx(t)
(f) Atomic clustering g(t)
EXPERIMENTAL PROOF OF R-Z THEORY rapidly expanding vapor was performed by
INTRODUCTION TO FEMTOSECOND LASER PULSES
Graphite Silicon rapidly expanding vapor was performed by
* Crystallization and formation of fibers start at a lower pulse
frequency for Graphite crystals (less than 1 MHz) and for Silicon (~2MHz)
Silicon rapidly expanding vapor was performed by
Starts nucleation at 2 MHz
Starts nucleation at 1 MHz
Interpulse time unit ~ 0.5 μs
Interpulse time unit ~ 1 μs
(below graph) are in close agreement with the experimental values (above).
R(t) ~ (E rapidly expanding vapor was performed by o/ro)1/5 t2/5
Video clip – Please click on picture below rapidly expanding vapor was performed by
References rapidly expanding vapor was performed by
 K. Venkatakrishnan and B. Tan, “Synthesis of fibrous nano-
Structures using ultrafast laser ablation under ambient condition
and at mega hertz pulse frequency,” Optics Express. Jan.(2009)
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A. T¨unnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond
laser ablation of solids,” Applied Physics A, vol. 63, no. 2, pp.
 R. Hergenr¨oder, “A model for the generation of small particles
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ablation: equation-of-state considerations,” in High-Power
Laser Ablation IV, vol. 4760 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 72–80,
Taos, NM, USA, April 2002.
 A. Dalis and S. K. Friedlander, “Molecular dynamics simulations
of the straining of nanoparticle chain aggregates: the case
of copper,” Nanotechnology, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. S626–S631, 2005.
 S. I. Anisimov and B. S. Luk’yanchuk, “Selected problems of
laser ablation theory,” Physics-Uspekhi, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 293–
 S. I. Anisimov, N. A. Inogamov, A. M. Oparin, et al., “Pulsed
laser evaporation: equation-of-state effects,” Applied Physics A,
vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 617–620, 1999.
 B. S. Luk’yanchuk, W. Marine, S. I. Anisimov, and G. A.
Simakina, “Condensation of vapor and nanoclusters formation
within the vapor plume produced by nanosecond laser ablation
of Si, Ge and C,” Proc.SPIE, vol. 3618, pp. 434–452, 1999.
 L. J. Radziemski, R. W. Solarz, and J. A. Paisner, Laser
Spectroscopy and Its Applications, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL,
Yakov B. Zeldovich rapidly expanding vapor was performed by (left), Andrei Sakharov (middle),
and David A. Frank-Kamenetskii in Sarov, 1950s
-Russian Academy of Sciences