reproductive system
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 60

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 246 Views
  • Uploaded on

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Design. Not for Homeostasis; Instead to Perpetuate the Species Sexual Reproduction Results in Genetic Variability Internal Fertilization & Gestation One Offspring per Pregnancy is Typical . REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Functions.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM' - barton


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
reproductive system design
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Design
  • Not for Homeostasis; Instead to Perpetuate the Species
  • Sexual Reproduction Results in Genetic Variability
  • Internal Fertilization & Gestation
  • One Offspring per Pregnancy is Typical
reproductive system functions
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Functions
  • Production & Support of Gametes
  • Formation, Transport & Delivery of Sperm
  • Formation & Transport of Ova
  • Protect & Support Developing Embryo, and Nourish Fetus
  • Deliver the Fetus
reproductive system overview of anatomy
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Overview of Anatomy
  • Reproductive Organs
  • Associated Ducts
  • Accessory Glands
  • External Genitalia
male anatomy testes
MALE ANATOMY: TESTES
  • From the Greek for “witness” (e.g., testify)
  • Essential organs of reproduction in the male (Male Gonad)
  • Site of sperm production
  • Suspended in scrotum by spermatic cord
  • Oval, ~4.5 cm long, 10.5 - 14 gms
male anatomy scrotum
MALE ANATOMY: SCROTUM
  • Pouch of skin and fascia evaginated from anterior abdominal wall
  • Subdivided into two lateral compartments, indicated by Raphe (Ridge)
  • Houses testes, keeps them cool (93F)
  • Cremaster muscle brings testes closer to body
  • Dartos muscle causes wrinkling
male anatomy testes9
MALE ANATOMY: TESTES
  • Develop initially in abdominal cavity (retroperitoneally)
  • Descend into scrotum
    • Begins in 7th month of gestation
    • Pass through inguinal canal
    • Should be in scrotum by birth

Continued ...

male anatomy testes continued
MALE ANATOMY: TESTES CONTINUED
  • Seminiferous tubules: Sites of sperm production
  • Interstitial Cells: Secrete Testosterone
  • Efferent ductules: Carry sperm from testes
  • Epididymis:
    • Store sperm
    • Site of sperm maturation (2 weeks)

Continued ...

male anatomy spermatic cord
MALE ANATOMY: SPERMATIC CORD
  • Contains structures passing to and from testes
  • Coverings derived from abdominal wall
  • Contents include:
    • Vas deferens
    • Spermatic artery and vein
    • Spermatic nerve
    • Lymph vessel
male anatomy vas ductus deferens
MALE ANATOMY: VAS (DUCTUS) DEFERENS
  • Carries sperm from epididymis to seminal vesicle
  • Passes through inguinal canal into body cavity
  • Crosses surface of urinary bladder
  • Joins with duct of seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct
  • Vasectomy
male accessory glands seminal vesicles
MALE ACCESSORY GLANDS: SEMINAL VESICLES
  • Paired structures posterior to urinary bladder
  • Secrete ~60% of seminal fluid
  • Fluid is sugary, alkaline
  • Rich in carbohydrates, Vitamin C
    • Nourishes sperm
    • Enhances motility
male accessory glands prostate gland
MALE ACCESSORY GLANDS : PROSTATE GLAND
  • Located inferior to urinary bladder, anterior to rectum
  • Surrounds prostatic urethra
  • Secretes ~25% of seminal fluid
  • Enzymes to Liquify Semen
male accessory glands bulbourethral glands
MALE ACCESSORY GLANDS : BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS
  • Also called Cowper’s glands
  • Lateral to membranous urethra
  • Secrete a drop of alkaline mucus
    • Cleans, lubricates urethra
    • Neutralizes acidic urine
    • Does not contribute towards semen
male anatomy penis
MALE ANATOMY: PENIS
  • Male copulatory organ
  • Functions to introduce sperm into female
  • Consists of three erectile bodies
    • Two corpora cavernosa
    • One corpus spongiosum
male anatomy penis21
MALE ANATOMY: PENIS
  • Corpus spongiosum
    • Surrounds penile (spongy) urethra
    • Forms 1/3 of shaft
    • Distal end forms glans penis;Urethral orifice opens through glans
    • Proximal end forms bulb of penis

Continued ...

male anatomy penis continued
MALE ANATOMY: PENIS CONTINUED
  • Corpora cavernosa
    • Paired, lie laterally
    • Form 2/3 of shaft
  • Prepuce (foreskin):
    • Covers glans penis
    • Removed by circumcision
male physiology spermatogenesis
MALE PHYSIOLOGY: SPERMATOGENESIS
  • Occurs in seminiferous tubules
  • Spermatogonia divide mitotically
  • One Spermatocyte eventually gives rise to Four Sperm via meiosis
  • Y Sperm are Smaller, Faster, Prefer Alkaline Environment
  • X Sperm are Larger, Stronger, Prefer Acidic Environment
male sexual response
MALE SEXUAL RESPONSE
  • Erection
    • Arteries dilate, increasing blood in spongy tissue
    • Constricts veins, causes erection
  • Ejaculation (expulsion)
    • Semen passes through urethra
    • Contractions of urethra & penile musculature
male hormonal controls
MALE HORMONAL CONTROLS
  • Gonadotropic Hormones
    • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (stimulates sperm production)
    • Luteinizing Hormone or ICSH (stimulates testes to secrete testosterone)
  • Testosterone (Male Sex Hormone)
    • Male Secondary Sex Characteristics
female anatomy ovary
FEMALE ANATOMY: OVARY
  • Female Gonad
  • All ova arrested at prophase I at birth
    • Approximately 400,000 total
    • Only about 400 ever reach maturity
  • Paired, oval, almond sized
  • Supported by ligaments
female anatomy uterine fallopian tubes
FEMALE ANATOMY: UTERINE (Fallopian) TUBES
  • Site of Fertilization
  • Paired, ~10 cm long
  • Attach to uterus, one on each side
    • Intramural Portion: Within uterus
    • Isthmus: Narrow portion adjacent to uterus
    • Ampulla: Long, wide portion
    • Infundibulum: Funnel-shaped end with branches, fimbriae, that drape over ovary
  • Transport via Cilia & Peristalsis
female anatomy uterus
FEMALE ANATOMY: UTERUS
  • Usually unpaired; hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ
  • Receives uterine tubes, empties into vagina
  • Site of Implantation & Development
  • Supported by ligaments:
    • Broad ligament: Double layer of peritoneum
    • Round ligament: Passes through inguinal canal
female anatomy uterus continued
FEMALE ANATOMY: UTERUS continued
  • Uterine wall has three layers
    • Perimetrium (broad ligament): Peritoneum
    • Myometrium: Thick layer of smooth muscle
    • Endometrium:
      • Epithelial layer
      • Undergoes cyclic changes in response to hormones
      • Endometriosis
female anatomy uterus39
FEMALE ANATOMY: UTERUS
  • Fundus: Arches above entry of uterine tubes
  • Body: Large triangular lumen
  • Isthmus: Narrowed region
  • Cervix:
    • Most inferior portion
    • Extends down into vagina
female anatomy vagina
FEMALE ANATOMY: VAGINA
  • Functions:
    • Receives penis during intercourse
    • Passage for removal of menstrual debris
    • Serves as a birth canal
  • Located between urethra and rectum
  • Lined with stratified squamous E.T.
  • Acidic environment (Resident Bacteria)
female anatomy vagina continued
FEMALE ANATOMY: VAGINA continued
  • Fornix: Circular recess around cervix; upper portion of vagina
  • Hymen:
      • Fold of mucous membrane
      • Does NOT signify virginity!
  • Bartholin’s glands:
    • Distal End Vagina
    • Homologous to Cowper’s glands
    • Very little secretion (mucus)
female anatomy vulva external genitalia
FEMALE ANATOMY: VULVA (External Genitalia)
  • Mons pubis: Fatty mound
  • Labia majora: Outer Folds of skin, Homologous to scrotum
  • Labia minora: Inner folds, Encircle clitoris, forming prepuce
  • Clitoris: Homologous to penis, corpora cavernosa
female anatomy clitoris
FEMALE ANATOMY: CLITORIS
  • Foreskin or Prepuce
  • Function – Sexual Pleasure
  • Orgasm controlled by Sympathetic Division of ANS
female anatomy breasts
FEMALE ANATOMY: BREASTS
  • Structurally – Integument
  • Functionally – Reproductive
    • Colostrum
    • Breast Milk
hormonal control adult female
HORMONAL CONTROL: ADULT FEMALE
  • Four hormones involved:
    • FSH and LH (from pituitary)
      • Target ovaries
      • Follicles w/ova grow & mature
      • Ovaries secrete:
    • Estrogen and progesterone (from ovaries)
      • Target uterus
      • Endometrium thickens & secretes
the ovarian cycle
THE OVARIAN CYCLE
  • Includes:
    • Follicle development/maturation & Oogenesis
    • Ovulation
    • Development of corpus luteum (ruptured follicle)
follicle development
FOLLICLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Up to 20 follicles begin maturation process monthly
  • Only one secondary follicle reaches maturity
  • Others undergo atresia (degradation)
  • Controlled primarily by FSH
  • Causes follicle cells to secrete estrogen

continued

ovulation
OVULATION
  • Caused by LH surge
  • Day 14 (28-day cycle)
  • Expels ovum into abdominal cavity
  • Fimbriae on uterine tube sway vigorously, produce a current
  • Fimbriae scratch Graafian follicle, rupture it, pull ovum into tube
formation of corpus luteum
FORMATION OF CORPUS LUTEUM
  • Ruptured Graafian follicle becomes corpus luteum
  • Corpus luteum secretes estrogen, progesterone
  • Maintains endometrial lining during pregnancy

continued

the uterine cycle
THE UTERINE CYCLE
  • Proliferative phase
    • Follows Menstruation
    • Estrogen from follicle stimulates proliferation of endometrium
  • Secretory phase
    • Follows Ovulation
    • Progesterone from corpus luteum stimulates secretion by endometrium
  • Menstrual phase (Day 1 of 28-day cycle)
ad