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REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Design. Not for Homeostasis; Instead to Perpetuate the Species Sexual Reproduction Results in Genetic Variability Internal Fertilization & Gestation One Offspring per Pregnancy is Typical . REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Functions.

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REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

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Reproductive system l.jpg

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


Reproductive system design l.jpg

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Design

  • Not for Homeostasis; Instead to Perpetuate the Species

  • Sexual Reproduction Results in Genetic Variability

  • Internal Fertilization & Gestation

  • One Offspring per Pregnancy is Typical


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REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Functions

  • Production & Support of Gametes

  • Formation, Transport & Delivery of Sperm

  • Formation & Transport of Ova

  • Protect & Support Developing Embryo, and Nourish Fetus

  • Deliver the Fetus


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REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Overview of Anatomy

  • Reproductive Organs

  • Associated Ducts

  • Accessory Glands

  • External Genitalia


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MALE ANATOMY: TESTES

  • From the Greek for “witness” (e.g., testify)

  • Essential organs of reproduction in the male (Male Gonad)

  • Site of sperm production

  • Suspended in scrotum by spermatic cord

  • Oval, ~4.5 cm long, 10.5 - 14 gms


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MALE ANATOMY: SCROTUM

  • Pouch of skin and fascia evaginated from anterior abdominal wall

  • Subdivided into two lateral compartments, indicated by Raphe (Ridge)

  • Houses testes, keeps them cool (93F)

  • Cremaster muscle brings testes closer to body

  • Dartos muscle causes wrinkling


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MALE ANATOMY: TESTES

  • Develop initially in abdominal cavity (retroperitoneally)

  • Descend into scrotum

    • Begins in 7th month of gestation

    • Pass through inguinal canal

    • Should be in scrotum by birth

Continued ...


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MALE ANATOMY: TESTES CONTINUED

  • Seminiferous tubules: Sites of sperm production

  • Interstitial Cells: Secrete Testosterone

  • Efferent ductules: Carry sperm from testes

  • Epididymis:

    • Store sperm

    • Site of sperm maturation (2 weeks)

Continued ...


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MALE ANATOMY: SPERMATIC CORD

  • Contains structures passing to and from testes

  • Coverings derived from abdominal wall

  • Contents include:

    • Vas deferens

    • Spermatic artery and vein

    • Spermatic nerve

    • Lymph vessel


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MALE ANATOMY: VAS (DUCTUS) DEFERENS

  • Carries sperm from epididymis to seminal vesicle

  • Passes through inguinal canal into body cavity

  • Crosses surface of urinary bladder

  • Joins with duct of seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct

  • Vasectomy


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MALE ACCESSORY GLANDS: SEMINAL VESICLES

  • Paired structures posterior to urinary bladder

  • Secrete ~60% of seminal fluid

  • Fluid is sugary, alkaline

  • Rich in carbohydrates, Vitamin C

    • Nourishes sperm

    • Enhances motility


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MALE ACCESSORY GLANDS : PROSTATE GLAND

  • Located inferior to urinary bladder, anterior to rectum

  • Surrounds prostatic urethra

  • Secretes ~25% of seminal fluid

  • Enzymes to Liquify Semen


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MALE ACCESSORY GLANDS : BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS

  • Also called Cowper’s glands

  • Lateral to membranous urethra

  • Secrete a drop of alkaline mucus

    • Cleans, lubricates urethra

    • Neutralizes acidic urine

    • Does not contribute towards semen


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MALE ANATOMY: PENIS

  • Male copulatory organ

  • Functions to introduce sperm into female

  • Consists of three erectile bodies

    • Two corpora cavernosa

    • One corpus spongiosum


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MALE ANATOMY: PENIS

  • Corpus spongiosum

    • Surrounds penile (spongy) urethra

    • Forms 1/3 of shaft

    • Distal end forms glans penis;Urethral orifice opens through glans

    • Proximal end forms bulb of penis

Continued ...


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MALE ANATOMY: PENIS CONTINUED

  • Corpora cavernosa

    • Paired, lie laterally

    • Form 2/3 of shaft

  • Prepuce (foreskin):

    • Covers glans penis

    • Removed by circumcision


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MALE PHYSIOLOGY: SPERMATOGENESIS

  • Occurs in seminiferous tubules

  • Spermatogonia divide mitotically

  • One Spermatocyte eventually gives rise to Four Sperm via meiosis

  • Y Sperm are Smaller, Faster, Prefer Alkaline Environment

  • X Sperm are Larger, Stronger, Prefer Acidic Environment


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MALE SEXUAL RESPONSE

  • Erection

    • Arteries dilate, increasing blood in spongy tissue

    • Constricts veins, causes erection

  • Ejaculation (expulsion)

    • Semen passes through urethra

    • Contractions of urethra & penile musculature


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MALE HORMONAL CONTROLS

  • Gonadotropic Hormones

    • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (stimulates sperm production)

    • Luteinizing Hormone or ICSH (stimulates testes to secrete testosterone)

  • Testosterone (Male Sex Hormone)

    • Male Secondary Sex Characteristics


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FEMALE ANATOMY: OVARY

  • Female Gonad

  • All ova arrested at prophase I at birth

    • Approximately 400,000 total

    • Only about 400 ever reach maturity

  • Paired, oval, almond sized

  • Supported by ligaments


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FEMALE ANATOMY: UTERINE (Fallopian) TUBES

  • Site of Fertilization

  • Paired, ~10 cm long

  • Attach to uterus, one on each side

    • Intramural Portion: Within uterus

    • Isthmus: Narrow portion adjacent to uterus

    • Ampulla: Long, wide portion

    • Infundibulum: Funnel-shaped end with branches, fimbriae, that drape over ovary

  • Transport via Cilia & Peristalsis


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FEMALE ANATOMY: UTERUS

  • Usually unpaired; hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ

  • Receives uterine tubes, empties into vagina

  • Site of Implantation & Development

  • Supported by ligaments:

    • Broad ligament: Double layer of peritoneum

    • Round ligament: Passes through inguinal canal


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FEMALE ANATOMY: UTERUS continued

  • Uterine wall has three layers

    • Perimetrium (broad ligament): Peritoneum

    • Myometrium: Thick layer of smooth muscle

    • Endometrium:

      • Epithelial layer

      • Undergoes cyclic changes in response to hormones

      • Endometriosis


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FEMALE ANATOMY: UTERUS

  • Fundus: Arches above entry of uterine tubes

  • Body: Large triangular lumen

  • Isthmus: Narrowed region

  • Cervix:

    • Most inferior portion

    • Extends down into vagina


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FEMALE ANATOMY: VAGINA

  • Functions:

    • Receives penis during intercourse

    • Passage for removal of menstrual debris

    • Serves as a birth canal

  • Located between urethra and rectum

  • Lined with stratified squamous E.T.

  • Acidic environment (Resident Bacteria)


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FEMALE ANATOMY: VAGINA continued

  • Fornix: Circular recess around cervix; upper portion of vagina

  • Hymen:

    • Fold of mucous membrane

    • Does NOT signify virginity!

  • Bartholin’s glands:

    • Distal End Vagina

    • Homologous to Cowper’s glands

    • Very little secretion (mucus)


  • Female anatomy vulva external genitalia l.jpg

    FEMALE ANATOMY: VULVA (External Genitalia)

    • Mons pubis: Fatty mound

    • Labia majora: Outer Folds of skin, Homologous to scrotum

    • Labia minora: Inner folds, Encircle clitoris, forming prepuce

    • Clitoris: Homologous to penis, corpora cavernosa


    Female anatomy clitoris l.jpg

    FEMALE ANATOMY: CLITORIS

    • Foreskin or Prepuce

    • Function – Sexual Pleasure

    • Orgasm controlled by Sympathetic Division of ANS


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    FEMALE ANATOMY: BREASTS

    • Structurally – Integument

    • Functionally – Reproductive

      • Colostrum

      • Breast Milk


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    HORMONAL CONTROL: ADULT FEMALE

    • Four hormones involved:

      • FSH and LH (from pituitary)

        • Target ovaries

        • Follicles w/ova grow & mature

        • Ovaries secrete:

      • Estrogen and progesterone (from ovaries)

        • Target uterus

        • Endometrium thickens & secretes


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    THE OVARIAN CYCLE

    • Includes:

      • Follicle development/maturation & Oogenesis

      • Ovulation

      • Development of corpus luteum (ruptured follicle)


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    FOLLICLE DEVELOPMENT

    • Up to 20 follicles begin maturation process monthly

    • Only one secondary follicle reaches maturity

    • Others undergo atresia (degradation)

    • Controlled primarily by FSH

    • Causes follicle cells to secrete estrogen

    continued


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    OVULATION

    • Caused by LH surge

    • Day 14 (28-day cycle)

    • Expels ovum into abdominal cavity

    • Fimbriae on uterine tube sway vigorously, produce a current

    • Fimbriae scratch Graafian follicle, rupture it, pull ovum into tube


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    FORMATION OF CORPUS LUTEUM

    • Ruptured Graafian follicle becomes corpus luteum

    • Corpus luteum secretes estrogen, progesterone

    • Maintains endometrial lining during pregnancy

    continued


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    THE UTERINE CYCLE

    • Proliferative phase

      • Follows Menstruation

      • Estrogen from follicle stimulates proliferation of endometrium

    • Secretory phase

      • Follows Ovulation

      • Progesterone from corpus luteum stimulates secretion by endometrium

    • Menstrual phase (Day 1 of 28-day cycle)


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