COMMUNIST CHINA. What do you remember???. When a stronger nation dominates a weaker nation it is called… What product did Britain sell to the Chinese in large quantities? What was the policy forced upon China to open itself to merchants from all nations?
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When a stronger nation dominates a weaker nation it is called…
What product did Britain sell to the Chinese in large quantities?
What was the policy forced upon China to open itself to merchants from all nations?
What was the rebellion in China to kick out all foreigners?
1911: overthrew the Qing Dynasty (ruled for over 250 yrs) & achieve independence for China
Kuomintang=The Nationalist Party
leader of Kuomintang
THE FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
1. Freedom from imperialism (nationalism)
2. Democratic government (constitution, people’s rights)
3. Healthy economy to provide for the people
Sun-Yat Sen loses power & country erupts into civil war
Warlords take over country
May Fourth Movement (1919)
Demonstrations throughout China that showed the Chinese people’s commitment to building a modern, strong nation
Many young people turn to communism to achieve this
Lenin sends advisors to China
Sun-Yat Sen dies, Chiang Kai-shek is now leader of Kuomintang (Nationalists)
fears communism (business family)
Loses support of many b/c gov’t becomes less democratic, corrupt, & does little to help the people
Mao Zedong, leader of Communists, gains support of the peasants
Communists & Nationalists fight warlords together but then the Nationalists began killing Communists
Kill most of the Communists in China…But not all
1930-1949 Communists vs. Nationalists in Civil War (unite during WWII)
Mao brings fighting to the countryside (peasants on side of communists)
Nationalists driven out again and again
The Long March
700,000 Nationalists surrounds Communists
Communists face certain defeat & 100,000 flee
6,000 mile journey known as the Long March
Nationalists chases them, Communists stay only a step ahead for 2 yrs
See map p.451
Japan invades China, Communists & Nationalists unite to fight Japanese
Civil War resumes after WWII
Communists (Red Army) win support of the people & win in 1949
People’s Republic of China
Nationalists flee to Taiwan
US helps Nationalists set up gov’t in Taiwan, wants to make sure communism doesn’t spread
Soviet Union: thrilled! Sign friendship treaty w/ China & send them financial & military aid
Mao & new communist gov’t make promises and many changes
Great Leap Forward (1958)
Purpose: Modernize china’s economy by dividing land into…
Communes—large collective farms often supporting over 25,000 people
Very ineffective, poorly planned (no desire to work hard since owned nothing)
20-40 million died!!!
Mao encouraged young people to initiate revolution
Red Guards—militia units to enforce strict communism (mostly teenagers)
Cultural Revolution (1966)
Goal: to create an equal society of peasants and workers by “purging” China of intellectuals, capitalists, and others
Led by the Red Guards who imprison, torture, murder civilians
Close schools & destroy art, etc.
Doesn’t end until Mao’s death 1976
After Mao died, China began to open & reform
Tiananmen Square (1989)
Begins with thousands of students protesting for democratic reform
Over a million Chinese join during the 6 week protest
The gov’t sends in troops & tanks
Thousands of protestors are killed or injured!!!
China is criticized today for its human rights abuses (Tibet, executions…)