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KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN: KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN. Disarikan oleh : soemarno , psl ppsub 2013. PENGENALAN DAN KONTROL BAHAYA DI HUNIAN. Determine if personnel have potential occupational exposure to environmental hazards. Obtain training.

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Ketahanan lingkungan kesehatan lingkungan

KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN:KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN

Disarikanoleh:

soemarno, pslppsub2013


Pengenalan dan kontrol bahaya di hunian
PENGENALAN DAN KONTROL BAHAYA DI HUNIAN

  • Determine if personnel have potential occupational exposure to environmental hazards.

  • Obtain training.

  • Voluntarily notify supervisor or OMC of any pre-disposition to environmental hazards that can create medical emergencies.

  • Use personal protective equipment, administrative controls, and engineering controls when exposed to environmental hazards.

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Mengurangi kontrol bahaya lingkungan
MENGURANGI / KONTROL BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN

  • Prevent the creation of a hazard in the first place

  • Reduce the amount of hazard brought into being

  • Prevent the release of existing hazard

  • Modify the rate or spatial distribution of release of hazard from its source

  • Separate, in time or in place, the hazard and that which is to be protected.

  • Separate the hazard and that which is to be protected by interaction of a material barrier.

  • Modify the basic qualities of the hazard.

  • Make that which is to be protected more resistant to damage from the hazard

  • Counter damage already done by the environmental hazard

  • Stabilize, repair, and provide rehabilitative corrective measures

Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012


Kita menghadapi banyak macam bahaya
Kita menghadapibanyakmacambahaya

  • Lima tipe-utamabahaya

    • Biologis: pathogens

    • Kimiawi

    • Fisika

    • Kultural

    • Pilihan Gaya hidup

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Jenis jenis bahaya biologis do we face
JENIS-JENIS BAHAYA BIOLOGIS Do We Face?

In terms of death rates, the most serious infectious diseases are flu, AIDS, diarrheal diseases, malaria, and tuberculosis; most of these deaths occur in developing countries.

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Bbrp penyakit dapat menular dari satu orang ke orang lainnya
Bbrp penyakit dapat menular dari satu orang ke orang lainnya

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

  • Nontransmissible disease

  • Infectious disease

  • Transmissible disease (contagious or communicable disease)

http://www.rims.edu.in/HealthCareCDACKolgksaha/Zoom-%20Infectious%20Diseases%20-%20Ringworm-Jock%20Itch-Worms-Amebas-Malaria.html


Bbrp penyakit dapat menular dari satu orang ke orang lainnya1
Bbrp penyakit dapat menular dari satu orang ke orang lainnya

  • Sejak 1950, kematian akibat penyakit infeksi telah menurun, karena :

    • Perawatan kesehatan lebih baik

    • Antibiotika

    • Vaksin

  • Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Penyakit infeksi masih menjadi ancaman utama
Penyakit infeksi masih menjadi ancaman utama

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

  • Penyakitinfeksimenyebarmelalui:

    • Udara

    • Air

    • Makanan

    • Cairantubuh

  • EpidemikdanPandemik

  • Resistensibacteridanserangga

Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations.

Diunduhdari: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2210909910000056?via=sd


Jalur penyakit infeksi pada manusia
JALUR PENYAKIT INFEKSI PADA MANUSIA

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Resistensi genetik thd antibiotik
RESISTENSI GENETIK THD ANTIBIOTIK

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

  • Bacteria: rapid reproduction, easily spread

  • Penggunaanantibiotikaygberlebihan

  • Penggunaanpesticida yang berlebih

Antibiotic Resistance is the adaptation of bacterial strains to certain of the ANTIBIOTIC MEDICATIONS doctors prescribe to treat infections the BACTERIA cause, rendering the antibiotic ineffective.

Sumber: http://www.beltina.org/health-dictionary/antibiotic-resistance.html _...diunduh 15/12/2012


Resistensi genetik thd antibiotik1
RESISTENSI GENETIK THD ANTIBIOTIK

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    • Resistant to most antibiotics

    • Symptoms of MRSA

    • How will it be controlled?

Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance.

Sumber: http://www.scq.ubc.ca/attack-of-the-superbugs-antibiotic-resistance/ _...diunduh 15/12/2012


Ancaman global akibat tuberculosis
ANCAMAN GLOBAL AKIBAT TUBERCULOSIS

  • Why is tuberculosis on the rise?

    • Not enough screening and control programs

    • Genetic resistance to a majority of effective antibiotics

    • Person-to-person contact has increased

    • AIDS individuals are very susceptible to TB

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Beberapa penyakit virus sangat mematikan
BEBERAPA PENYAKIT VIRUS SANGAT MEMATIKAN

  • Influenza or flu virus

    • #1 Killer

    • Transmission

  • HIV

    • #2 Killer

    • Antiviral drugs

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Beberapa penyakit virus sangat mematikan1
BEBERAPA PENYAKIT VIRUS SANGAT MEMATIKAN

  • Global strategy to slow down the spread of HIV

    • Reduce the number of new infections

    • Concentrate on those most likely to spread HIV

    • Free testing

    • Education for prevention

    • Provide free or low-cost drugs

    • Research

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


BEBERAPA PENYAKIT VIRUS SANGAT MEMATIKAN

  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV)

    • #3 Killer

    • Mode of transmission

  • Viruses that move form animals to humans

    • West Nile virus

    • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

  • Reduce chances of infection: Wash your hands

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Penyebaran penyakit infeksi dari binatang ke manusia
PENYEBARAN PENYAKIT INFEKSI DARI BINATANG KE MANUSIA

  • Ecological medicine

  • Human practices that encourage the spread of diseases from animals to humans

  • Emerging infections

    • HIV

    • SARS

    • West Nile virus

    • Lyme virus

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Malaria oleh nyamuk pembawa parasit
Malaria— oleh NYAMUK PEMBAWA PARASIT

  • Malaria

    • Caused by Plasmodium sp. carried by Anopheles mosquitoes

    • Penyebaran

    • Gejala-gejala

    • Siklus Malarial


Malaria oleh nyamuk pembawa parasit1
Malaria— oleh NYAMUK PEMBAWA PARASIT

  • Malaria on the rise since 1970

    • Drug resistant Plasmodium

    • Insecticide resistant mosquitoes

    • Effect of global warming

    • AIDS patients particularly vulnerable

  • Prevention of spread and current research

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Mengurangi penyakit infeksi
Mengurangi penyakit infeksi

  • Good news

    • Vaccinations on the rise

    • Oral rehydration therapy

  • Bad news

    • More money needed for medical research in developing countries

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Solusi: Penyakit Infeksi, Cara-cara untuk mencegah atau mereduksi kejadiannya

SOLUTIONS

Infectious Diseases

Increase research on tropical diseases and vaccines

Reduce poverty

Decrease malnutrition

Improve drinking water quality

Memperbaikikualitas air minum

Reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics

Educate people to take all of an antibiotic prescription

Mengurangipenggunaanantibiotikdalambudidayaunggas

Require careful hand washing by all medical personnel

Immunisasi anak-anak thd penyakit virus

Provide oral rehydration for diarrhea victims

Conduct global campaign to reduce HIV/AIDS

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Menghadapi bahan kimia berbahaya
MENGHADAPI BAHAN KIMIA BERBAHAYA mereduksi kejadiannya

Managing the risks of toxic substances is an ongoing, integrated process

Sumber: http://www.oag-bvg.gc.ca/internet/English/parl_cesd_200911_02_e_33197.html_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Beberapa bahan kimia dapat menyebabkan kanker mutasi dan gangguan janin
BEBERAPA BAHAN KIMIA DAPAT MENYEBABKAN KANKER, MUTASI, DAN GANGGUAN JANIN

Bahan kimia toksik:

Carcinogens

Mutagens

Teratogens

Sumber:_http://risk.arizona.edu/healthandsafety/chemicalsafetyinfo/index.shtml...diunduh ….. 15/12/2012


Pcb ada di berbagai tempat
PCB ADA DI BERBAGAI TEMPAT GANGGUAN JANIN

  • Kelompoksenyawakimia yang mengandungkhlor:

    • Sangatstabil

    • Nonflammable

    • Break down slowly in the environment

    • Travel long distances in the air

    • Larutdalamlemak

    • Biomagnifikasi

    • Food chains and webs

  • Banned, but found everywhere

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Potential pathways on which toxic chemicals move through the environment
Potential Pathways on Which Toxic Chemicals Move Through the Environment

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Bbrpa bahan kimia mempengaruhi sistem immune nervous dan endocrine
Bbrpa bahan kimia mempengaruhi sistem immune, Nervous, dan Endocrine

  • Some natural and synthetic chemicals in the environment can weaken and harm

    • SistemKekebalan

    • SistemSyaraf

    • Sistem Hormonal

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Bbrpa bahan kimia mempengaruhi sistem immune nervous dan endocrine1
Bbrpa bahan kimia mempengaruhi sistem immune, Nervous, dan Endocrine

  • Hormonally active agents (HAAs)

    • Gender benders

    • Penggangguakelenjar Thyroid

    • BahankimiaToksik

  • Phthlates

  • Efekpadasistem hormonal system

  • Kanker

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Efek toksik akibat merkuri
EFEK TOKSIK AKIBAT MERKURI Endocrine

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

  • Hg: teratogen and potent neurotoxin

    • Once airborne, persistent and not degradable

    • 1/3 from natural sources

    • 2/3 from human activities

    • Enters the food chain: biomagnification

Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification or biological magnification, is the increase in concentration of a substance that occurs in a food chain as a consequence of:

Persistence (can't be broken down by environmental processes)

Food chain energetics

Low (or nonexistent) rate of internal degradation/excretion of the substance (often due to water-insolubility)

http://flyfishingconsultant.blogspot.com/2010/07/i-do-not-eat-fish-why-is-that.html


Efek toksik akibat merkuri1
EFEK TOKSIK AKIBAT MERKURI Endocrine

  • 2007: Hg hotspots identified

  • How are humans exposed?

    • Inhalation: vaporized Hg or particulates of inorganic salts

    • Eating fish with high levels of methylmercury

  • Effects of Hg on humans

  • Who is most at risk?

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Siklus merkuri dalam lingkungan akuatik
Siklus Endocrinemerkuridalamlingkunganakuatik

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


PENYELESAIAN PENCEMARAN MERKURI Endocrine

SOLUTIONS

Pencemaran Merkuri

Pencegahan

Prevention

Control

Kontrol

Sharply reduce mercury emissions from coal-burning plants and incinerators

Phase out waste incineration

Remove mercury from coal before it is burned

Switch from coal to natural gas and renewable energy resources such as wind, solar cells, and hydrogen

Tax each unit of mercury emitted by coal-burning plants and incinerators

Convert coal to liquid or gaseous fuel

Require labels on all products containing mercury

Phase out use of mercury in batteries, TVs, compact fluorescent lightbulbs, and all other products unless they are recycled

Collect and recycle mercury-containing electric switches, relays, and dry-cell batteries

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

Fig. 17-B, p. 451


Bisphenol a
Bisphenol A

  • Menyerupai Estrogen

  • Found in many common products

  • Laboratory findings

  • Effects on human health

  • Should it be banned?

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

Diunduhdari: http://www.bisphenol-a.org/pdf/BPAsafe.pdf


Bagaimana evaluasi dan menangani bahaya kimia
Bagaimana Evaluasi dan Menangani Bahaya Kimia ?

Scientists use live laboratory animals, non-animal tests, case reports of poisonings, and epidemiological studies to estimate the toxicity of chemicals, but these methods have limitations.

Many health scientists call for much greater emphasis on pollution prevention to reduce our exposure to potentially harmful candidates.

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Efek berbahaya dari bahan kimia
EFEK BERBAHAYA DARI BAHAN KIMIA

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

  • Toxicology

  • Toksisitastergantungpada:

    • Dose

    • Age

    • Genetic makeup

    • Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS)

    • Kelarutandanpersistensibahankimia

    • Biomagnifikasi

Diunduhdari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014579308001166


Kecelakaan kimia
KECELAKAAN KIMIA

“Chemical accident" means an accident involving a fortuitous, or sudden or unintended occurrence while handling any hazardous chemicals resulting in continuous, intermittent or repeated exposure to death, or injury to, any person or damage to any property but does not include an accident by reason only of war or radio-activity

Sumber: http://www.hrdp-idrm.in/e5783/e17327/e27015/e27708/_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Estimasi paparan manusia thd bahan kimia dan mengukur efeknya
Estimasi Paparan Manusia thd bahan kimia dan mengukur efeknya

Pengukuran & Pemodelan Ilmiah

Ramalankandungantoksikdalammanusia

Metabolisme

Akumulasi

Ekskresi

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Studi kasus melindungi anak anak dari bahan kimia toksik
Studi Kasus: efeknyaMelindungi anak-anak dari bahan kimia toksik

  • Analysis of umbilical cord blood: significance

  • Infants and children more susceptible to the toxic effects of chemicals than adults

    • Eat, drink water, and breathe more per unit of body weight than adults

    • Put their fingers in their mouths

    • Less well-developed immune systems and body detoxification processes

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Estimasi toksisitas hewan uji di lab dan uji non hewan
Estimasi toksisitas: Hewan uji di Lab dan Uji non-hewan efeknya

  • Dose-response curve: median lethal dose (LD50)

    • Nonthreshold dose-response model

    • Threshold dose-response model

  • Can the data be extrapolated to humans?

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Estimasi toksisitas hewan uji di lab dan uji non hewan1
Estimasi toksisitas: Hewan uji di Lab dan Uji non-hewan efeknya

  • More humane methods using animals

  • Replace animals with other models

    • Computer simulations

    • Tissue culture and individual animal cells

    • Chicken egg membranes

  • What are the effects of mixtures of potentially toxic chemicals?

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Kurva hipotetis dose response untuk menentukan ld50
Kurva Hipotetis Dose-Response untuk menentukan LD50 efeknya

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Tingkat toksisitas dan rataan ld untuk manusia
Tingkat Toksisitas dan Rataan LD untuk manusia efeknya

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


KURVA RESPON DOSIS efeknya

Nonlinear dose-response

Linear dose- response

Effect

Effect

Threshold level

Dose

Dose

No threshold

Threshold

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

Fig. 17-15, p. 456


Estimasi efek berbahaya bahan kimia
ESTIMASI EFEK BERBAHAYA BAHAN KIMIA efeknya

  • Case reports and epidemiological studies

  • Limitations of epidemiological studies

    • Too few people tested

    • Length of time

    • Can you link the result with the chemical?

    • Can not be used for new hazards

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Apa bahaya dosis rendah dari bahan toksik
APA BAHAYA DOSIS RENDAH DARI BAHAN TOKSIK? efeknya

Acute-based Predicted No-effect Concentrations (PNECacute), as well as two existing EQSs for the pesticides chlorpyrifos and chlorfenvinphos compared to a correlation of observed effects on community structure of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities, expressed as SPEAR index (SPEAR[%]) and a measure of toxic stress, calculated as Toxic Units (TU) for the most toxic compound (based on data from von derOhe et al., 2009).

The two red dots represent sites at which chlorfenvinphos was responsible for the TUmax.

Sumber: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969711001136_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Bahan kimia berbahaya di rumah
BAHAN KIMIA BERBAHAYA efeknyaDI RUMAH

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


Teddy bear efeknya

Shampoo

Baby bottle

Clothing

Perfluorochemicals to add shine

Some stuffed animals made overseas contain flame retardants and/or pesticides

Can contain bisphenol-A

Can contain perfluorochemicals

Nail polish

Mattress

Perfluorochemicals and phthalates

Flame retardants in stuffing

Perfume

Phthalates

Carpet

Padding and carpet fibers contain flame retardants, perfluorochemicals, and pesticides

Hairspray

Phthalates

Food

Some food contains bisphenol-A

TV

Wiring and plastic casing contain flame retardants

Milk

Fat contains dioxins and flame retardants

Sofa

Foam padding contains flame retardants and perfluorochemicals

Frying pan

Nonstick coating contains perfluorochemicals

Computer

Toys

Fruit

Water bottle

Tennis shoes

Tile floor

Imported fruit may contain pesticides banned in the U.S.

Can contain bisphenol-A

Flame retardant coatings of plastic casing and wiring

Vinyl toys contain phthalates

Can contain phthalates

Contains perfluorochemicals, phthalates, and pesticides

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

Fig. 17-16, p. 458


Efek berbahaya dari bahan kimia1
EFEK BERBAHAYA DARI BAHAN KIMIA efeknya

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

  • Severe limitations estimating toxicity levels and risks

  • Acceptable levels vary between 1/100 and 1/1000 of the estimated harmful levels

Diagram illustrating dose response curve for Chemical A

Diunduhdari: … http://www.stewardshipcommunity.com/?id=339


Pencegahan polusi prinsip ke hati hatian
PENCEGAHAN Polusi & Prinsip Ke-hati-hatian efeknya

  • Those introducing a new chemical or new technology would have to follow new strategies

    • A new product is considered harmful until it can be proved to be safe

    • Existing chemicals and technologies that appear to cause significant harm must be removed

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

Dose-Effect and Dose-Response

Since the basic question in toxicology is how dose is related to toxicity, most toxicology studies are designed to investigate how living creatures react as doses vary incrementally, from low to high levels.

Diunduhdari: http://toxlearn.nlm.nih.gov/htmlversion/module1.html


Individuals matter ray turner and his refrigerator
Individuals Matter: Ray Turner and efeknyaHis Refrigerator

  • 1974: Ozone layer being depleted by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

  • 1992: International agreement to phase out CFCs and other ozone-destroying chemicals

  • Ray Turner: citrus-based solvents to clean circuit boards

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

The cycle of the ozone depletion and how its shown to be depleted.

Diunduhdari: http://optioneenvirochemblog1.wordpress.com/2012/03/28/e4-ozone-depletion/


Risiko dan menghindari bahayanya
Risiko dan Menghindari Bahayanya efeknya

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

We can reduce the major risks we face if we become informed, think critically about risks, and make careful choices.

The relationship between risk assessment and selection of controls

Sumber: http://security.practitioner.com/introduction/infosec_5_5.htm ... diunduh 17/12/2012


Risiko kesehatan datang dari kemiskinan gender dan gaya hidup
Risiko kesehatan datang-dari Kemiskinan, Gender dan Gaya-hidup

  • AnalisisRisiko

  • RisikoKesehatan “terbesar”:

    • Kemiskinan

    • Gender

    • Pilihan Gaya Hidup

Analyzing Health Problems for Risk Factors

Sumber: http://www.uic.edu/sph/prepare/courses/ph420/resources/pt2analysis.htm_...diunduh 17/12/2012


Bahaya akibat merokok
BAHAYA AKIBAT MEROKOK Gaya-hidup

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

  • Most preventable major cause of suffering and premature death

  • Nikotin: bahanadetif (tambahan)

  • Efekmerokokpasif (secondhand smoke)

Secondhand smoke is a complex mixture of gases and particulates containing as many as 4800 chemicals including formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nicotine, carcinogenic tars and others.

Of the chemicals identified in secondhand smoke, more than 50 have been found to cause cancer.

Diunduhdari: http://www.whatyoudomatters.org/Substance_Abuse/Tobacco/Secondhand_Smoke.aspx


Bahaya akibat merokok1
BAHAYA AKIBAT MEROKOK Gaya-hidup

  • Bagaimana mengurangi merokok

    • Pajak

    • Ban

    • Klassifikasi dan Regulasi nikotin

    • Pendidikan

Sumber: http://ginfomation.blogspot.com/2008/09/smohing-hazards-danger-info.html_...diunduh 17/12/2012


Estimasi risiko dari teknologi hal ini tidak mudah
Estimasi risiko dari teknologi Gaya-hidupHal ini tidak mudah

Technologies for Risk Assessment and Risk Management of Chemical Substances

Sumber:. http://www.aist.go.jp/NIRE/eco_tec_e/hyouka_e.htm…………. _...diunduh 15/12/2012


Banyak orang tidak mengerti bagaimana evaluasi risiko
Banyak orang tidak mengerti bagaimana Evaluasi Risiko? Gaya-hidup

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

  • Fear

  • Degree of control

  • Whether a risk is catastrophic

  • Optimism bias

  • Unfair distribution of risks

Diunduh dari: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1517-83822000000100002&script=sci_arttext ……. 17/12/2012


Beberapa prinsip evaluasi dan reduksi risiko
Beberapa prinsip Evaluasi dan Reduksi Risiko Gaya-hidup

  • Membandingkan Risiko

  • Determine how much you are willing to accept

  • Determine the actual risk involved

  • Concentrate on evaluating and carefully making important lifestyle choices

Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012


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