Social studies review power point unit 24
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Social studies review POWER POINT unit 24. David. 24.1. For what reasons were tensions high in europe in 1914?.

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Social studies review POWER POINT unit 24

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Social studies review power point unit 24

Social studies review POWER POINT unit 24

David


Social studies review power point unit 24

24.1


For what reasons were tensions high in europe in 1914

For what reasons were tensions high in europe in 1914?

  • Extreme Nationalism: European nationalists demanded freedom and self-government. They believed that people with a common language and culture should throw off foreign rule and form their own countries. Created mistrust and rivalry between nations. In Eastern Europe, nationalism created hostility between Austria-Hungary and Russia.


For what reasons were tensions high in europe in 19141

For what reasons were tensions high in europe in 1914?

  • Imperialism/Militarism: Imperialism fueled rivalries between powerful nations. 1870-1914, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Russia scrambled for colonies in Africa, Asia, & Pacific.

  • Militarism is the policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war. Countries would build up their forces and other countries will do the same in response.


For what reasons were tensions high in europe in 19142

FOR WHAT REASONS WERE TENSIONS HIGH IN Europe in 1914?

  • Rival Alliances: To protect themselves, European powers formed alliances. Germany organized Triple Alliance with Austria Hungary and Italy, and France created the Triple Entente with Russia And Britain. This made it so that one small event could spark a major war.


June 28 1914

June 28, 1914

  • Franz Ferdinand, archduke, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, angered members of the Black Hand, a Serbian terrorist group. GavriloPrincip, terrorist, shot Franz and his wife Sophie, and both died.


The start of world war i

The start of world war I

  • Austria-Hungary accused the Serbian government of organizing that assassination.

  • On July 28, 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.

  • Russia ordered its forces to mobilize and defend Serbia.

  • Mobilize means toprepare for war.


One war becomes many wars

One war becomes many wars

  • Germany tells Russia to cancel the order to mobilize. After no response, Germany declares war on Russia.

  • Germany declares war on Russia’s ally France.

  • To get to France, Germany had to march through neutral Belgium. Britain declared war on Germany because of an alliance with Belgium


World war i from 1914 1918

World war I from 1914-1918

  • The kaiser, or German emperor, promised his troops that they would be home soon

  • Both sides of the conflict thought the war would be short.

  • In the war were the Central Powers– Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire, and the Allied Powers- France, Britain, and Russia. In time 21 other nations including Italy joined the Allies.


November 1914

November 1914

  • German advance and an allied counterattack had produced a deadly stalemate.

  • Stalemates are deadlocks in which neither side is strong enough to defeat the other.

  • For 3 years, the armies fought with huge battles. Thousands lost their lives, but neither side gained much territory.


Trench warfare

Trench warfare

  • Both sides created a maze of trenches protected by mines and barbed wire.

  • Some trenches were shallow ditches, others were elaborate tunnels that worked as headquarters and first aid stations.

  • Between both areas front lines of trenches was no mans land, an area full of barbed wire and deadly land mines.

  • Soldiers spent day after day shelling the enemies and on orders from an officer, they run across no mans land to attack the enemy.


Trench warfare1

Trench warfare

  • Most offensives were deadly.

  • Battle of Verdun in 1916 lasted 10 months. Germans lost 400,000 men trying to overrun French lines. French lost even more lives defending.

  • By 1916, Russians had lost more than 1 million lives.


United states maintaining neutrality

UNITED STATES – MAINTAINING NEUTRALITY

  • Government adopted official position of neutrality.

  • Public opinion divided, often along ethnic lines.

  • Most Americans favor the allies, because of our long standing ties in history with Britain.

  • Germans and Austrians favored Central Powers, along with Irish because Britain had rule over Ireland for years.


Impact of wwi on united states

Impact of WWI on united states

  • Economy boomed, many orders for war goods.

  • Trade imbalance with the allies and the central powers

  • Propaganda War: Both sides portrayed the other as savages who killed innocent civilians.

  • Propaganda is the spreading of ideas to help or hurt a cause.


Submarine warfare and the lustania

Submarine warfare and the lustania

  • Britain blockaded German ports, and Germany blockaded British ports.

  • Germany has a fleet of submarines, known as U-boats, and they attack any ship that enters or leaves British ports.

  • A German submarine torpedoed a British ship Lusitania and 128 Americans.

  • Wilson was furious and Germany agreed to stop attacking neutral ships without warning.


Social studies review power point unit 24

24.2


Wilson tries to bring peace

Wilson tries to bring peace

  • Thought that the United States as a neutral could bring victory without peace, but failed.

  • Knew the U.S. might be drawn into war, so he gathered a stronger army and navy.

  • In 1916 ran for reelection against Charles Hughes, a supreme court justice. Hughes was portrayed as a warmonger, or someone who tries to stir up war.

  • Wilson won the election in 1916.


Moving toward war

Moving toward war

  • Germany renewed submarine warfare. Wilson hoped to maintain neutrality, but broke off diplomatic relationships with Germany.

  • The Zimmerman Telegram, from Germany, urged Mexico to attack the United States if they declared war on Germany. In return, Germany promised to get back Mexico’s lost provinces.

  • German submarines sink several American merchant ships


Moving toward war1

moving toward war

  • Russian revolution drove Czar Nicholas II from power.

  • Czars, or Russian emperors, had ruled with absolute power.

  • Without the Czar, it was easier for Wilson to support the allied cause.

  • We joined the war on April 6 on the side of the allied powers.

  • Jeannette Rankin of Montana, first woman elected to Congress. “I want to stand by my country, but I cannot vote for war. I vote no!”


Over there

“over there”

  • George M. Cohan wrote a song, “Over There”

  • Promised that we were going to go fight and we won’t be back until we’ve won.


Building an army

Building an army

  • We passed the Selective Service Act, a draft requiring men 21-30 to register for the military draft. A draft is a law requiring people of a certain age to serve in the military.

  • 4 million men and women joined the armed forces, some immigrants.

  • In training, the soldiers were low on supplies and some had to practice with broomsticks, but the soldiers were very into the war spirit


Building an army1

Building an army

  • To immigrants, southerners, and African Americans, a lot of things were a first.

  • 25% of the soldiers were illiterate.

  • Army became an educator and taught troops how to read, write, eat nutritiously, and care for themselves.


Organizing the war effort

Organizing the war effort

  • US reorganized its economy to produce foods, arms, and other goods for the war.

  • Wilson set up agencies to oversee the war effort.

  • Wilson chose Herbert Hoover to head the Food Administration. Farmers grew more crops, families planted victory gardens, and there were wheatless Mondays and meatless Tuesdays.


Organizing the war effort1

Organizing the war effort

  • Nation was short of supplies, so Wilson set up the War Industries Board. Told factories what they had to produce, and divided up limited resources.

  • In 1918, Wilson created the War Labor Board.

  • Settled disputes over working hours and wages and tried to prevent strikes. Unions able to win better pay and working conditions.

  • Union membership rose sharply


Liberty bonds

Liberty bonds

  • Movie stars such as Charlie Chaplin and Mary Pickford helped sell Liberty Bonds.

  • By buying bonds, Americans were lending money to the government to pay for war.

  • Raised $21 billion with liberty bonds.

  • To gain public support, 75,000 four minute men sent out to give speeches and urge Americans to make sacrifices for the goals of freedom and democracy.


Women at work

Women at work

  • Women fill the spots of men at work. Women still earned less than the men they replace.

  • In factories, women assembled weapons and airplane parts.

  • Some delivered mail and others were police officers.

  • Help changed view that women couldn’t work.


German americans

German Americans

  • Loyalty of German-Americans questioned.

  • Mobs attacked them on the streets.

  • A mob lynched Robert Prager, who had been born in Germany. The jury refused to convict the mob leaders.

  • Prejudice led families to change their names, and most German things simply disappeared.


Other tensions

Other tensions

  • During the war, African-Americans and Mexicans migrated North to escape discrimination.

  • Blacks found better paying jobs, but also ran into violence. In 1917, 39 African Americans were killed during a riot.

  • Ranchers got Mexicans to cross the border, almost 100,000 of them.

  • Some Mexicans went to cities to work in factories.


Pacifists

Pacifists

  • Some opposed the war, among them Progressives, such as Jane Addams.

  • Many pacifists, people who refused to fight in any war because they believe that war is evil.

  • Antiwar was also high among socialists.

  • A socialist believes that the people as a whole rather than individuals should own all property and share all business profits.


More info

More info

  • Congress passed laws making it a crime to criticize government or try to stop the war. Over 1,600 arrested for violating this.

  • Eugene V Debs, jailed for protesting draft.

  • Most Americans thought wars were necessary in wartime.


Social studies review power point unit 24

24.3


Allies in bad condition

Allies in bad condition

  • American troops reached France in June 1917

  • Allies had lost millions of soldiers and troops in the trenches were exhausted and ill. Many troops in Britain and France were near starvation

  • Russia withdraws from the war in November 1917. Bolsheviks seized power from the Provisional Government. Leader was V. I. Lenin, and wanted to bring a communist revolution to Russia.

  • Embraced the ideas of Karl Marx


Allies in bad condition1

Allies in bad condition

  • Lenin opposed the war, arguing that it only benefited the ruling class.

  • March,1918, Russia and Germany signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.

  • Although Russia gave land to Germany, the war was ended and Lenin could focus on the communist revolution.

  • Germany could now move its armies from Russia to France for an all-out attack


Allies in bad condition2

Allies in bad condition

  • Germans massed near the French town of Amiens. The Germans called this a peace offensive and hoped that it would end the war.

  • Dozens of German divisions against a small British force. Germans attacked, but British held on. Attack was two weeks long when Germans finally gave up their attack.


Americans in france

Americans in France

  • Commanding the American Expeditionary Force was General John J. Pershing.

  • Allied forces wanted the American troops to work with their troops, but Pershing wanted U.S. to play an individual role in achieving piece.

  • In the end, some British and French with Americans and some just American operations.


Harlem hell fighters

Harlem hell fighters

  • 396th United States Infantry.

  • African American units

  • U.S. allowed a few African Americans to train for combat, the French respected the bravery of African American soldiers and were glad to fight with them

  • Spent more time under fire than any other American unit.

  • Greeted after war with a huge parade.


Belleau wood

Belleau Wood

  • As Germans approached, French prepare to evacuate Paris.

  • American troops were in their first major battle in Belleau Wood

  • Battle of Belleau Wood raged for three weeks, and the U.S. won


Final battles

Final battles

  • Germans launch another drive to take Paris, Allies are pushed back until they reach American troops and make the Germans retreat.

  • French Marshal Ferdinand Foch, commander of the Allies, ordered attacks in a certain area, and American forces stormed another area.


Argonne forest

Argonne Forest

  • American soldiers pushed into the forest. Years of fighting left the land covered with trenches and shell holes. Air still smelled of poison gas

  • Americans advanced despite heavy German fire, but then rains and thick woods slowed movement

  • Alvin York, wiped out a nest of German machine gunners with one rifle.

  • After 47 days, Americans won the Battle of Argonne forest.


End of wwi

End of wwI

  • German government realizes that the war cannot be won, and requests an armistice, or an agreement to stop fighting

  • Two conditions: Germany must accept Wilson’s plan for peace, and German emperor must abdicate, or give up power.

  • He agreed and German became a republic, WWI ended on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month.


Costs of war

Costs of war

  • Many casualties, more than 20 million.

  • Northern France in ruins

  • Germans near starvation

  • Orphaned/Homeless children

  • To make matters worse, an influenza epidemic spread around the world. An epidemic is the rapid spread of a disease among large numbers of people. Epidemic killed twice as many people as the war.


Wilsons peace plan

Wilsons peace plan

  • Welcomed by cheering crowds wherever he visited. He thought this meant they supported his “Peace without victory” policy but instead it was for him to punish the Germans.

  • Wilsons peace plan, known as the fourteen points, was meant to prevent international problems from causing another war

  • 1st point called for an end to secret agreements, because secret alliances lead to war


Wilson s peace plan

Wilson’s peace plan

  • Next, he called for freedom of the seas, free trade, and a limit on arms.

  • Peaceful settlement of disputes over colonies

  • Self-determination, the right of national groups to their own territory and forms of government.

  • The most important to Wilson, called the League of Nations, protected the independence of all countries.


Wilson s peace plan1

Wilson’s peace plan

  • Ran into problems with his plan, some goals too vague, and others conflicted with reality.

  • Most allies to concerned with protecting their own intrests


The peace treaty

The Peace treaty

  • Key issues in the peace treaty were decided by the Big Four

  • Big four were Woodrow Wilson-US, David Lloyd George-Britain, Georges Clemenceau-France, and Vittorio Orlando-Italy.

  • Conflicting goals

  • Wilson wanted “peace without victory” but the rest of the Allies wanted revenge. Germany must pay.


The peace treaty1

The peace treaty

  • They wanted Germany to pay large reparations, or cash payments for the losses they had suffered during the war. Further they wanted Germany to talk responsibility for the war.

  • Wanted to weaken Germany

  • Wilson had to make compromises in order to save his key goals


The treaty of versailles

The treaty of versailles

  • Nobody was quite satisfied with it,

  • Germany was horrified with the terms of it but had no choice but to sign.

  • Germany had to take blame for the war, pay 300 billion in reparations, limited military, returned Alsace-Lorraine to France. In addition, Germany loses over seas colonies

  • Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, made from lands once ruled by Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary

  • League of Nations included “Guarantee of peace”


Battle over the treaty

Battle over the treaty

  • A vocal minority opposed the league, some said it was too soft on defeated powers. German Americans thought it was too harsh.

  • Isolationists, people who wanted the U.S. out of foreign affairs opposed the league

  • Henry Cabot Lodge, leader of the people who opposed the league. Was ok with the league just wanted to make changes.

  • He disliked “protect any member whose independence or territory was threatened”


Battle over the treaty1

Battle over the treaty

  • Wanted the US independent of the league

  • Also wanted congress to decide whether the US would follow league policy

  • Wilson wouldn’t make changes because it would weaken the league.

  • Treaty was not passed, and we did not come to a peace treaty until 1921


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