2 Approaches to qualitative research. DAVID NUNAN. Contrasting quantitative and qualitative research. How many contrasting items can you add to these lists?. Qualitative classroom data. What types of qualitative data might be collected in classroom research?.
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How many contrasting items can you add to these lists?
What types of qualitative data might be collected in classroom research?
“A case study is what you call a case, in case, in case you don’t have anything else to call it.”
(Response from a student who was asked to define ‘case study’)
“A detailed, often longitudinal investigation of a single individual or entity (or a few individuals or entities)”
(Nunan & Bailey, 2009: 158)
a detailed, often longitudinal investigation of a single individual or entity (or a few individuals or entities)
naturalistic – no manipulation of subjects; no treatment
the researcher sets out to find out what’s happening
not merely pre-experimental
the investigation of a ‘bounded instance’
an “instance in action”
What are some of the ‘instances’ that could be investigated in second language teaching and learning?
A longitudinal case study examines development and performance over time.
By concentrating on the behavior of one individual or a small number of individuals (or sites) it is possible to conduct a very thorough analysis (“thick” or “rich’ description) of the case and to include triangulated perspectives from other participants or observers.
(Duff 2008: 4)
Strong in reality
You can generalize from an instance to a class
It can represent multiple viewpoints and support alternative interpretations
Can provide a database that can be reinterpreted in the future
Insights can be put to immediate use
Case study reports usually more accessible than reports of psychometric studies
“The individual case is usually selected for study on the basis of specific psychological, biological, sociocultural, institutional or linguistic attributes, representing a particular age group, a combination of first and second language ability level (e.g. basic or advanced), or a skill area such as writing, a linguistic domain such as morphology and syntax, or mode or medium of learning, such as an on-line, computer-mediated environment.” (Duff, 2008:32-33)
Discuss the following statement:
“As ‘rules of the game’, reliability and validity are irrelevant to case study research.”
It is tempting to argue that the accumulation of case studies allows theory building via tentative hypotheses culled from the accumulation of single instances. But the generalizations produced in a case study are no less legitimate when about the instance, rather than the class from which the instance is drawn (i.e. generalizations about the case rather than from it).Discussion
“If you study grains of sand, you will find each is different. Even by handling one, it becomes different. But through studying it and ones like it, you begin to learn about a beach. “
(Larsen-Freeman, 1996: 165)
a) credibility (in preference to internal validity)
b) transferability (in preference to external validity/generalisability)
c) dependability (in preference to reliability)
d) confirmability (in preference to objectivity)
“the study of people’s behavior in naturally occurring, ongoing settings, with a focus on the cultural interpretation of that behavior.” (Watson-Gegeo, 1988).
Focus on cultural patterns in groups
The process of observing and reporting on one’s own thoughts, feelings, motives, reasoning process and mental states.
The term also covers retrospection, in which there is a gap between an event and the reporting of the event.
Concurrent introspection: Occurs simultaneously with the event being reported.
Immediate retrospection: Occurs right after the event.
Delayed retrospection: Occurs some time after the event.
2. What were you doing and thinking immediately prior to the class?
3. What are you doing and thinking last Monday morning?
1. What are you doing and thinking right now?
What do you see as the threats to the reliability and validity of introspection?
How might reliability and validity be improved?
Use of data collected during an event (e.g. audiotape, videotape, field notes, SCORE charts, classroom transcripts) to stimulate the recollections of the people who took part in the event.
A diary study in second language learning, acquisition, or teaching is an account of a second language experience as recorded in a first person journal.
Experiences are “documented through regular, candid entries in a personal journal and then and analyzed for recurring patterns or salient events. (Bailey 1990: 215)
a broad narrative approach that focuses on the analysis and description of social phenomena as they are experienced within the context of individual lives. … It offers a longitudinal portrait of the phenomenon under investigation. (Benson and Nunan, 2005)
Complete this statement
Elicitation refers to …………………..
Which of the following collection methods could be used for elicitation?
Elicitation refers to a range of procedures for obtaining speech samples and other data from subjects. Such procedures may range from the administration of standardized tests through to questionnaires and interviews.
(Nunan, 1992: 230)
To what extent does this definition accord with the one that you produced?
As a data collection device, to which paradigm does elicitation belong – the psychometric or naturalistic?
Elicitation versus observation
Consider the following elicited language.
R: Look at him, he’s working. …
I: Working in the … er … park
R: And her?
I: And same, change flowers or pot. Fresh one. (Hmm) Or watering. I think so.
R: Yeah. And them?
I: And them working together. (Nunan, 1992: 139)
What grammatical feature is the task trying to elicit?Is it successful?