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GNUTELLA. Peer-to-peer file sharing protocol Name based on hazelnut chocolate spread “Nutella” and GNU, the name of a prominent Free Software Organization Created by AOL employee, Justin Frankel A lot like Napster, only without the nagging legal issues. Let’s start here. Napster is….

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GNUTELLA

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GNUTELLA


Peer-to-peer file sharing protocol

Name based on hazelnut chocolate spread “Nutella” and GNU, the name of a prominent Free Software Organization

Created by AOL employee, Justin Frankel

A lot like Napster, only without the nagging legal issues.

Let’s start here


Napster is…

  • Centralized system

  • All function and information is centralized into one server with many clients connecting directly to the server to send and receive information

  • Similar to [email protected], and most other client/server architectures out there


And we have Gnutella…

  • Decentralized system

  • All peers communicate directly with one another and have equal roles

  • Gnutella developers call each client a “servent”

  • Similar to Internet routing structure which is largely decentralized


Ok, what was that all about?

  • Gnutella can’t really be shutdown, since there’s nothing to shutdown

  • Napster only shared (shares?) mp3s, while Gnutella will share anything that you’ve made available

  • Gnutella is like a distributed computing effort, but not really


So, how does it work

  • Downloading done through the HTTP protocol

  • Uploading done by establishing a TCP/IP connection to the client (who then downloads through a HTTP connection)

  • Port independent (defaults to 6346, but can specify any port)


Basic representation


Actual Network Crawl


Gnutella is a old game redone

  • Telephone – you pass a message around the room, and see it transform before your ears

  • Your search query is the message, getting passed along everyone in your horizon


The horizon

  • Determined by TTL (Time to live)

  • TTLs defaults to 5, but can be reasonably changed

  • Horizon peaks around 10000 hosts, so the network doesn’t slow to a crawl

  • Each query is a game of probability


Anonymity

  • Searches are anonymous

  • Downloads can be tracked (via IP addresses) but each time the query is passed the chance is reduced exponentially


But does it scale?


Available clients

  • Morpheus (http://www.morpheus.com)

  • Gnucleus (http://www.gnucleus.com)

  • Limewire (http://www.limewire.com)

  • Mactella (http://www.cxc.com)

  • Bearshare (http://www.bearshare.com)


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