The learning perspective
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Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Traditional Behaviorists. Social – Cognitive Learning Theory Transitional / Contemporary Learning Theorists. The Learning Perspective. Theorist. John B. Watson. Kohn's homepage. Julian B. Rotter. Bandura. Tolman. Self-efficacy information.

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The Learning Perspective

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The learning perspective

Classical Conditioning

Operant Conditioning

Traditional Behaviorists

Social – Cognitive Learning Theory

Transitional / Contemporary Learning Theorists

The Learning Perspective



John B. Watson

Kohn's homepage

Julian B. Rotter



Self-efficacy information

B.F. Skinner

The learning perspective

Operant Conditioning





“After the Fact”

Primary Reinforcers

Secondary Reinforcers

Positive Reinforcers

Negative Reinforcers

Escape – avoidance

Premack Principle

Schedules: Continuous or Partial

Fixed ratio Variable ratio Fixed interval Variable interval


Punishment + or –

Generalization Discrimination Extinction Spontaneous recovery

Social cognitive learning

Social / Cognitive Learning

  • Tolman: Latent Learning “Cognitive Theory of Learning”

  • Bandura: Learning from Models Social / Cognitive Learning

Transition from behaviorism

Differ from Behaviorism in their emphasis on the interaction between thoughts, beliefs, and expectations.

Similar in that they stress the influence of the immediate environment on a person’s actions.

Transition from Behaviorism

Beyond behaviorism the role of cognitions

Latent Learning

Learning that is not immediately expressed.

Kohler’s Chimps/Insight

Observational Learning

Learning by watching what others do and what happens to them for doing it.

Beyond Behaviorism / The Role of Cognitions

Modern social cognitive learning theories emphasize

Modern Social – cognitive Learning Theories Emphasize:

  • Latent learning

  • Observational learning

  • Perceptions and interpretations of events

  • Motivation beliefs, such as enduring expectations of success or failure and confidence or doubt in one’s ability to master new skills and achieve goals.

Locus of control

Locus of Control

  • Locus of Control Web Survey

Self – fulfilling prophecy

*You expect to succeed, so your work hard and succeed.

Or your expect to fail, so you don’t do much work, and as

a result you do poorly.

People who have an internal locus

of control tend to believe that they are responsible

for what happens to them, they control their destiny.

Julian Rotter

Self efficacy

Self - Efficacy

  • Self-efficacy information

Debates among the perspectives

Debates among the Perspectives

  • Freewill vs. Determinism

  • Reductionism vs. Non-reductionism

  • Nature vs. Nurture

  • Objectivity vs. Subjectivity

Behaviorist learning

Behaviorist / Learning

  • Determinist: Behavior is determined by the environment according to Skinner.

  • Reductionist: Behavior can be reduced to S – R or B – R – B.

  • Nurturist: Behavior is learnt.

  • Objectivist: The only data worth having is objective stance. (observable behavior)

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