The learning perspective
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Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Traditional Behaviorists. Social – Cognitive Learning Theory Transitional / Contemporary Learning Theorists. The Learning Perspective. Theorist. John B. Watson. Kohn's homepage. Julian B. Rotter. Bandura. Tolman. Self-efficacy information.

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The Learning Perspective

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Classical Conditioning

Operant Conditioning

Traditional Behaviorists

Social – Cognitive Learning Theory

Transitional / Contemporary Learning Theorists

The Learning Perspective


Theorist

John B. Watson

Kohn's homepage

Julian B. Rotter

Bandura

Tolman

Self-efficacy information

B.F. Skinner


Operant Conditioning

Thorndike

Skinner

Reinforcement

Punishment

“After the Fact”

Primary Reinforcers

Secondary Reinforcers

Positive Reinforcers

Negative Reinforcers

Escape – avoidance

Premack Principle

Schedules: Continuous or Partial

Fixed ratio Variable ratio Fixed interval Variable interval

Shaping

Punishment + or –

Generalization Discrimination Extinction Spontaneous recovery


Social / Cognitive Learning

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latent_learning

  • Tolman: Latent Learning “Cognitive Theory of Learning”

  • Bandura: Learning from Models Social / Cognitive Learning

http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~lynda_abbott/Social.html


Differ from Behaviorism in their emphasis on the interaction between thoughts, beliefs, and expectations.

Similar in that they stress the influence of the immediate environment on a person’s actions.

Transition from Behaviorism


Latent Learning

Learning that is not immediately expressed.

Kohler’s Chimps/Insight

http://www.pigeon.psy.tufts.edu/psych26/kohler.htm

Observational Learning

Learning by watching what others do and what happens to them for doing it.

Beyond Behaviorism / The Role of Cognitions


Modern Social – cognitive Learning Theories Emphasize:

  • Latent learning

  • Observational learning

  • Perceptions and interpretations of events

  • Motivation beliefs, such as enduring expectations of success or failure and confidence or doubt in one’s ability to master new skills and achieve goals.


Locus of Control

  • Locus of Control Web Survey

Self – fulfilling prophecy

*You expect to succeed, so your work hard and succeed.

Or your expect to fail, so you don’t do much work, and as

a result you do poorly.

People who have an internal locus

of control tend to believe that they are responsible

for what happens to them, they control their destiny.

Julian Rotter


Self - Efficacy

  • Self-efficacy information

http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/BanEncy.


Debates among the Perspectives

  • Freewill vs. Determinism

  • Reductionism vs. Non-reductionism

  • Nature vs. Nurture

  • Objectivity vs. Subjectivity


Behaviorist / Learning

  • Determinist: Behavior is determined by the environment according to Skinner.

  • Reductionist: Behavior can be reduced to S – R or B – R – B.

  • Nurturist: Behavior is learnt.

  • Objectivist: The only data worth having is objective stance. (observable behavior)


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