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HOW TO HARVARD REFERENCE. An Introductory Guide to the Harvard Method of Referencing for use in Blogs and Assignments. WHAT IS HARVARD REFERENCING?.

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How to harvard reference

An Introductory Guide

to the

Harvard Method

of Referencing

for use in

Blogs and Assignments

What is harvard referencing

Published sources include:- Books, Scripts, Magazines, Newspapers, Articles, Diagrams, Videos/DVD, Films, Documentaries, Television Programmes, Online Resources and Websites/Web pages.

  • A method of referencing to let the reader of your work know the published sources of the information you have used and how to find those sources of information

  • It formalizes the way of acknowledging other people’s published work that you have used/included in relation your own assignment.




EVERY information source you research and use to inform your own work must be acknowledged:

Within the text of your work



In an alphabetical list at the end of your work – known as BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • It confirms that you have used various sources of information to support your work.

  • It proves that you have not taken the work and opinions of others and claimed them as your own – known as PLAGIARISM

  • It clearly identifies that source of information so others may locate it and refer to it.


  • This is a Quick Guide –

    To Reference other sources you may have to refer to a specialist website – which will also need to be referenced in your Bibliography!


CITATION: Single Author:-

In a study by Seedhouse (1997) coping with illness was investigated.

CITATION: Two Authors :-

In the book by Basford and Slevin (1995)…

CITATION: More than two Authors :- (The surname of the first author should be given followed by et. al.)

Benner et al (2004) conclude that…

  • All statements and opinions, conclusions etc taken from another writer’s work should be acknowledged, whether you directly quote, paraphrase or summarize.

  • Use a citation to reference the author whose work you are using or discussing in your work and then list that source of information in your BIBLIOGRAPHY at the end of your assignment.

Direct quotations
Direct quotations

Use Quotation Marks (“ “) as well as Author’s Surname, Year of Publication and Page Number.

SHORT QUOTATIONS – up to 2 lines - can be incorporated in the body of the text.

Buffino (2008 p.471) states that “Vampire Story is a very funny play. But it is not a comedy.”

Hagen (2008 p.23) questions

“ Where are the real human beings in these plays?” and continues “…They are lost behind ready-made, false forms.”

LONGER QUOTATIONS – should be indented in a separate paragraph.

Berry (2001 p.149) in discussing metaphor in language, reinforces the idea by providing an example from Troilus and Cressida:

“The dialogue between Troilus and Cressida, Act II,I scene ii, when they declare their love. It is interesting to note the very different male and female imagery by which they communicate.”


  • It takes time to record citations and references correctly but get into the habit of noting them down as you create your work. It makes it easier to keep track of the sources of information you have used.

    When using a WEBSITE print off the front page and keep it to remind you of the URL and the date you accessed it.

Bibliography magazines journals periodicals
Bibliography Magazines / journals / periodicals

Bibliography newspaper articles
Bibliography newspaper articles



  • FILM – DVD- You TUBE


  • AUDIO –CD’s, I tunes, Radio Programmes



Bibliography web pages and web sites with authors
Bibliography web pages and web sites with AUTHORS

Bibliography web pages and web sites without authors
Bibliography web pages and web sites without AUTHORS


  • Always make a note of the exact URL (website address) of your source information including You Tube, as these may change rapidly.

  • Make a note of the date you accessed the website as sources of information on the internet can change very rapidly.

Bibliography online resources e library moodle
Bibliography online resources / e library / moodle

Bibliography online resources e books
Bibliography online resources / e- BOOKS

Bibliography internet newspapers and journals
Bibliography internet newspapers and journals


  • Using quotations and referencing correctly means that you are building up your writing skills and that you can back up your work with evidence.

  • The HARVARD METHOD is a well established and internationally recognised way to cite and reference


Everything that you cite within your text must be referenced in the Bibliography.

Everything that is in the Bibliography does not need to be cited.

Always try to have as wide a range of sources as possible.

Further harvard reference references


    The Open University has an excellent document guide to HR which can be downloaded to your computer –

  • Search Harvard Referencing OU for the Document

These sites will give even more detail to aid you in referencing professionally and correctly.

Presentation Compiled by Ellie Darvill