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TOPIC 6.0. LINUX NETWORKING. Internet Protocol ( IP) in UDP/IP and TCP/IP. IP is the network layer packet delivery service (host-to-host). translation between different data-link protocols. IP DATAGRAMS. IP provides connectionless, unreliable delivery of IP datagrams .

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TOPIC 6.0

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TOPIC 6.0

LINUX NETWORKING


Internet Protocol (IP) in UDP/IP and TCP/IP

  • IP is the network layer

    • packet delivery service (host-to-host).

    • translation between different data-link protocols.


IP DATAGRAMS

  • IP provides connectionless, unreliable delivery of IP datagrams.

  • Connectionless: each datagram is independent of all others.

  • Unreliable: there is no guarantee that datagrams are delivered correctly or at all.


IP ADDRESSES

  • IP is a network layer - it must be capable of providing communication between hosts on different kinds of networks (different data-link implementations).

  • The address must include information about what network the receiving host is on.

  • This makes routing feasible.


IP ADDRESSES

  • IP addresses are logical addresses (not physical)

  • 32 bits.

  • Includes a network ID and a host ID.

  • Every host must have a unique IP address.

  • IP addresses are assigned by a central authority (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers -- ICANN)


SERVICES PROVIDED BY IP

  • Connectionless Delivery (each datagram is treated individually).

  • Unreliable (delivery is not guaranteed).

  • Fragmentation / Reassembly (based on hardware MTU).

  • Routing.

  • Error detection.


IP DATAGRAM FRAGMENTATION

  • Each fragment (packet) has the same structure as the IP datagram.

  • IP specifies that datagram reassembly is done only at the destination (not on a hop-by-hop basis).

  • If any of the fragments are lost - the entire datagram is discarded (and an ICMP message is sent to the sender).


UDP (USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL)

  • UDP is a transport-layer protocol

    • communication between processes

  • UDP uses IP to deliver datagrams to the right host.


PORTS

  • UDP/IP uses an abstract destination point called a protocol port.

  • Ports are identified by a positive integer.

  • Operating systems provide some mechanism that processes use to specify a port.


PORTS

Host A

Host B

Process

Process

Process

Process

Process

Process


Source Port

Destination Port

Length

Checksum

Data

UDP Features

  • Datagram Delivery

  • Connectionless

  • Unreliable

  • Half-duplex

UDP Datagram Format


TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

  • TCP is an alternative transport layer protocol supported by TCP/IP.

  • TCP provides:

    • Byte-Stream

    • Connection-oriented

    • Reliable

    • Full-duplex


TCP vs. UDP

Q: Which protocol is better ?

A: It depends on the application.

TCP provides a connection-oriented, reliable byte stream service (lots of overhead).

UDP offers minimal datagram delivery service (as little overhead as possible).


IPX / SPX

  • Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange

  • networks using the Novell NetWare OS.

  • IPX is a network layer protocol

  • SPX is a transport layer protocol

  • IPX having similarities to IP

  • SPX having similarities to TCP


IPX / SPX (cont..)

  • Novell's UnixWare supported IPX/SPX natively.

  • Open Enterprise Server – Linux: does not support IPX/SPX (have to use an additional software package)

  • Open source FreeBSD OS includes an IPX/SPX stack


AppleTalk

  • proprietary suite of protocols developed by Apple Inc.

  • included in the original Macintosh released in 1984.

  • corresponds closely to the Network layer


NETWORKING MODEL FOR AppleTalk


DLC (Down able Contents)

  • is a form of digital media distributed through the Internet.

  • used to refer specifically to content created for video games that is released separately from the main video game release.

  • Or used to refer to any type of digital entertainment media distributed online.

  • allowed users to download games using a telephone line or over the cable line.


DECnet

  • a suite of network protocols created by Digital Equipment Corporation

  • 1975 - peer-to-peer network architectures (built for 4 layers)

  • 1980 - transforming DEC into a networking powerhouse

  • 1982 - evolved into a 7 layer OSI compliant networking protocol

  • 2010 - an open-source version has been developed for the Linux OS. DECnet code has been embedded in the Linux kernel


DECnet PHASE IV PROTOCOL SUITE


NIC (Network Interface Card)

  • is a hardware device that handles an interface to a computer network

  • allows a network-capable device to access that network.

  • has a ROM chip that contains a MAC Address

  • exists on the Data Link Layer of the OSI model


NIC (Network Interface Card)

  • 4 techniques NIC used to transfer data:

    • Polling (microprocessor examines the status of the peripheral under program control)

    • Programmed I/O (microprocessor alerts the designated peripheral by applying its address to the system's address bus)

    • Interrupt-driven I/O (peripheral alerts the microprocessor that it's ready to transfer data)

    • DMA (intelligent peripheral assumes control of the system bus to access memory directly - removes load from the CPU but requires a separate processor on the card)


COMMANDS…

  • ping

  • ifconfig

  • dhclient


ping COMMAND

  • is a computer network administration utility used to test the reach ability of a host on an Internet Protocol (IP) network

  • to measure the round-trip time for messages sent from the originating host to a destination computer.

  • operates by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request packets

  • Used as a tool to troubleshoot problems in an IP network.


ifconfig COMMAND

  • short for interface configuration

  • It is a system administration utility in Unix-like operating systems to configure, control, and query TCP/IP network interface parameters

  • originally appeared in 4.2BSD as part of the BSD TCP/IP suite.

  • setting an interface's IP address and netmask, and disabling or enabling a given interface

  • to display and analyze network interface parameters.


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