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TOPIC 6.0. LINUX NETWORKING. Internet Protocol ( IP) in UDP/IP and TCP/IP. IP is the network layer packet delivery service (host-to-host). translation between different data-link protocols. IP DATAGRAMS. IP provides connectionless, unreliable delivery of IP datagrams .

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topic 6 0

TOPIC 6.0

LINUX NETWORKING

internet protocol ip in udp ip and tcp ip
Internet Protocol (IP) in UDP/IP and TCP/IP
  • IP is the network layer
    • packet delivery service (host-to-host).
    • translation between different data-link protocols.
ip datagrams
IP DATAGRAMS
  • IP provides connectionless, unreliable delivery of IP datagrams.
  • Connectionless: each datagram is independent of all others.
  • Unreliable: there is no guarantee that datagrams are delivered correctly or at all.
ip addresses
IP ADDRESSES
  • IP is a network layer - it must be capable of providing communication between hosts on different kinds of networks (different data-link implementations).
  • The address must include information about what network the receiving host is on.
  • This makes routing feasible.
ip addresses1
IP ADDRESSES
  • IP addresses are logical addresses (not physical)
  • 32 bits.
  • Includes a network ID and a host ID.
  • Every host must have a unique IP address.
  • IP addresses are assigned by a central authority (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers -- ICANN)
services provided by ip
SERVICES PROVIDED BY IP
  • Connectionless Delivery (each datagram is treated individually).
  • Unreliable (delivery is not guaranteed).
  • Fragmentation / Reassembly (based on hardware MTU).
  • Routing.
  • Error detection.
ip datagram fragmentation
IP DATAGRAM FRAGMENTATION
  • Each fragment (packet) has the same structure as the IP datagram.
  • IP specifies that datagram reassembly is done only at the destination (not on a hop-by-hop basis).
  • If any of the fragments are lost - the entire datagram is discarded (and an ICMP message is sent to the sender).
udp user datagram protocol
UDP (USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL)
  • UDP is a transport-layer protocol
    • communication between processes
  • UDP uses IP to deliver datagrams to the right host.
ports
PORTS
  • UDP/IP uses an abstract destination point called a protocol port.
  • Ports are identified by a positive integer.
  • Operating systems provide some mechanism that processes use to specify a port.
ports1
PORTS

Host A

Host B

Process

Process

Process

Process

Process

Process

udp features

Source Port

Destination Port

Length

Checksum

Data

UDP Features
  • Datagram Delivery
  • Connectionless
  • Unreliable
  • Half-duplex

UDP Datagram Format

tcp transmission control protocol
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
  • TCP is an alternative transport layer protocol supported by TCP/IP.
  • TCP provides:
    • Byte-Stream
    • Connection-oriented
    • Reliable
    • Full-duplex
tcp vs udp
TCP vs. UDP

Q: Which protocol is better ?

A: It depends on the application.

TCP provides a connection-oriented, reliable byte stream service (lots of overhead).

UDP offers minimal datagram delivery service (as little overhead as possible).

ipx spx
IPX / SPX
  • Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange
  • networks using the Novell NetWare OS.
  • IPX is a network layer protocol
  • SPX is a transport layer protocol
  • IPX having similarities to IP
  • SPX having similarities to TCP
ipx spx cont
IPX / SPX (cont..)
  • Novell\'s UnixWare supported IPX/SPX natively.
  • Open Enterprise Server – Linux: does not support IPX/SPX (have to use an additional software package)
  • Open source FreeBSD OS includes an IPX/SPX stack
appletalk
AppleTalk
  • proprietary suite of protocols developed by Apple Inc.
  • included in the original Macintosh released in 1984.
  • corresponds closely to the Network layer
dlc down able contents
DLC (Down able Contents)
  • is a form of digital media distributed through the Internet.
  • used to refer specifically to content created for video games that is released separately from the main video game release.
  • Or used to refer to any type of digital entertainment media distributed online.
  • allowed users to download games using a telephone line or over the cable line.
decnet
DECnet
  • a suite of network protocols created by Digital Equipment Corporation
  • 1975 - peer-to-peer network architectures (built for 4 layers)
  • 1980 - transforming DEC into a networking powerhouse
  • 1982 - evolved into a 7 layer OSI compliant networking protocol
  • 2010 - an open-source version has been developed for the Linux OS. DECnet code has been embedded in the Linux kernel
nic network interface card
NIC (Network Interface Card)
  • is a hardware device that handles an interface to a computer network
  • allows a network-capable device to access that network.
  • has a ROM chip that contains a MAC Address
  • exists on the Data Link Layer of the OSI model
nic network interface card1
NIC (Network Interface Card)
  • 4 techniques NIC used to transfer data:
    • Polling (microprocessor examines the status of the peripheral under program control)
    • Programmed I/O (microprocessor alerts the designated peripheral by applying its address to the system\'s address bus)
    • Interrupt-driven I/O (peripheral alerts the microprocessor that it\'s ready to transfer data)
    • DMA (intelligent peripheral assumes control of the system bus to access memory directly - removes load from the CPU but requires a separate processor on the card)
commands
COMMANDS…
  • ping
  • ifconfig
  • dhclient
ping command
ping COMMAND
  • is a computer network administration utility used to test the reach ability of a host on an Internet Protocol (IP) network
  • to measure the round-trip time for messages sent from the originating host to a destination computer.
  • operates by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request packets
  • Used as a tool to troubleshoot problems in an IP network.
ifconfig command
ifconfig COMMAND
  • short for interface configuration
  • It is a system administration utility in Unix-like operating systems to configure, control, and query TCP/IP network interface parameters
  • originally appeared in 4.2BSD as part of the BSD TCP/IP suite.
  • setting an interface\'s IP address and netmask, and disabling or enabling a given interface
  • to display and analyze network interface parameters.
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