Micromechanical flight
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Jesse Caldwell & Jon Schwank. Micromechanical Flight. MAE 268. Flight on micro level Types of Flight (MAV’s) Rotary Flapping MAV Aerodynamics Current Designs Future Applications Possible Improvements. Overview. Can flight be achieved on MEMS level? No self-contained MEMS flyers yet

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Micromechanical Flight

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Micromechanical flight

Jesse Caldwell & Jon Schwank

Micromechanical Flight

MAE 268


Overview

  • Flight on micro level

  • Types of Flight (MAV’s)

    • Rotary

    • Flapping

  • MAV Aerodynamics

  • Current Designs

  • Future Applications

  • Possible Improvements

Overview


Introduction

  • Can flight be achieved on MEMS level?

    • No self-contained MEMS flyers yet

  • 3 types of locomotion:

    • Classical airfoil, Re > 104

    • Flapping flight,10<Re<104

    • Drag-based, Re<10

Introduction


Introduction1

  • Flight at the micro level is distinctly different

    • Laminar flow, Re < 103

    • Viscous forces dominate

    • Non-steady state locomotion

    • Boundary layer thickness

      ~ chord length

Introduction


Flight on micro level

  • Conventional aerodynamics only accounts for ~30% of MAV lift

    • Increase in drag coefficient

    • Large decrease in lift to drag ratio

    • Flight is not possible with conventional aerodynamics alone

Flight on micro level


Types of flight mav s

Generating more lift:

  • Unsteady flapping or rotation

    – Can generate two additional lift mechanisms

  • Mimicking Insects

  • Extremely difficult to mimic

Types of Flight (MAV’s)

Typical insect wing stroke showing the wing tip location and angle of attack.


Insect flight

  • Three Lift Mechanisms

    • Conventional Aerodynamics

    • Leading Edge Vorticity (LEV)

    • Wake capture

Insect Flight

Lift


Rotary microflight

  • Can still harness all three MAV lift forces w/o mimicking insects

    • Blade-vortex interaction

      ~wake capture

    • LEV form on leading edge

  • Advantages to Rotary

    • Simple to control

    • Easy to fabricate

  • Disadvantages

    • Large surface beneath for MEMS

Rotary Microflight


Current designs

Current Designs


Future applications

Implantation of MEMS into Insects

Surveillance & intelligence

Search & rescue

Military

Future Applications


Possible improvements

  • Stacking comb drives

    • Relieves Surface Area

    • 2-3 Story Stack Up

    • Increases force 5 times

Possible Improvements


Torsional ratcheting actuater

Direct conversion to rotary motion

  • Low actuation voltage ~ 18-35 V

  • Easily Controlled (Square Wave)

  • Advantages

    • Generates large torques

  • Disadvantages

    • Failure at high speeds

Torsional Ratcheting Actuater


Gearing

  • Gear Train

    • Multiple gears to increase Torque or Speed

  • Convert high torque to high speed

    • Ideal solution for TRA

Gearing


Conclusion

  • Flight on the Micro level

  • What works and What doesn’t

  • Looking to nature

  • Current Design

  • Future Ideas

  • Possible Improvements

  • Conclusion


    Questions

    Questions?


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