Chapter 16
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 26

Parallelism PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 74 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 16. Parallelism. Definition: - Using the same pattern of words. - In  grammar ,  parallelism , also known as  parallel structure  or  parallel construction , is a balance within one or more sentences of similar phrases or  clauses  that have the same grammatical structure.

Download Presentation

Parallelism

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter 16

Chapter 16

Parallelism


What is parallelism

Definition:

- Using the same pattern of words.

- In grammar, parallelism, also known as parallel structure or parallel construction, is a balance within one or more sentences of similar phrases or clauses that have the same grammatical structure.

What is Parallelism ?


Use parallelism

By balancingthe items in a sentence, you will make the sentence clearer and easier to read.

Two or more equal ideas should be expressed in parallel, or matching, form. The ideas will be then read smoothly and naturally.

Use Parallelism


Examples

Compare the following examples:

Lacking parallelism: (unbalanced)

She likes cooking, jogging, and to read.

Parallel:

She likes cooking, jogging, and reading.

In the above example, the first sentence has two gerunds and one infinitive. To make it parallel, the sentence was rewritten with three gerunds instead.

Examples


Parallelism

Lacking parallelism: (unbalanced)

The dog ran across the yard, jumped over the fence, and down the alley he sprinted.

Parallel: 

The dog ran across the yard, jumped over the fence, and sprinted down the alley.


Uses of parallelism

To coordinateelements in a series

To pair ideas

To organizelists

Uses of parallelism:


Using parallelism

All items listing two or more words, phrases, or clauses, need to be written in the same grammatical structure.For example, balance a noun with a noun, a phrase with a phrase, a clause with a clause.

Many people are interested in combat when they read about it at home,study about it in school, or watchingit on television.

Correction:

Many people are interested in combat when they read about it at home,study about it in school, or watch it on television.

Using Parallelism


Faulty parallelism

items in a series appear in parallel grammatical form: a noun is listed with other nouns, an -ing form with other -ingforms, and so on.

Failure to express such items in similar grammatical form is called faulty parallelism.

Faulty Parallelism:


Faulty parallelism1

  • Tourists enjoy viewingair shows on military bases andto examinedisplays of armor in museums.

  • Correction:

    • Tourists enjoy viewingair shows on military bases andexaminingarmor displays in museums.

  • Faulty Parallelism:


    When to use parallelism

    Parallelism always applies to two or more equal ideas.

    1-With elements joined by  coordinating conjunctions, especially and, but,and or.

    When to use Parallelism ?


    When to use parallelism1

    2- Use parallel structure with elements in lists or in a series. (A series is a group of three or more elements in a row.)

    When to use Parallelism ?


    When to use parallelism2

    3- Use parallel structure with elements being compared.  (X is more than / better than Y)

    When we compare things, we often use words such as more, less, better, and worse,  We connect the items being compared with words like as and than.

    When to use Parallelism ?


    When to use parallelism3

    4- Use parallel structure with elements joined by a linking verb or a verb of being.

    When to use Parallelism ?


    Exercise faulty parallelism

    1- Learning a new language as an adult is more difficult than to learn one as a child.

    A- learning.

    B- to learning.

    C- no change.

    Exercise : Faulty Parallelism


    Exercise faulty parallelism1

    2- Every morning, I run two miles, walk one mile, and half a mile on the bike.

    A- half a mile.

    B- bike half a mile.

    C- no change

    Exercise : Faulty Parallelism


    Exercise faulty parallelism2

    3- There are two ways to get a promotion: working hard or make friends in high places.

    A- work hard.

    B- to working hard

    C- no change

    Exercise : Faulty Parallelism


    Exercise faulty parallelism3

    4- The man walked down the street, stopped at a shop window, and fixed his tie.  

    A- was fixing his tie.

    B- to fix his tie.

    C- no change

    Exercise : Faulty Parallelism


    Exercise faulty parallelism4

    5- Many college students have the same goals: playing hard, doing well in classes, and a job after graduation.

    A- after graduation, a job.

    B- finding a job after graduation.

    C- no change

    Exercise : Faulty Parallelism


    Exercise faulty parallelism5

    6- The bedroom was filled with old newspapers and radios that don’t work.

    A- radios that are broken

    B- broken radios

    C- no change

    Exercise : Faulty Parallelism


  • Login