Official Power and Countervailing Power. Vocabulary. Legislative Power: the power to make laws. Ex: The King and his Sovereign Council, British Legislative Assembly, today’s Parliament
Legislative Power: the power to make laws. Ex: The King and his Sovereign Council, British Legislative Assembly, today’s Parliament
Executive Power: the ability to enforce laws. Ex: The King and his Army, British Governor General, today’s Prime Minister
Judicial Power: The ability to interpret and judge laws. Ex: The King and his judges, British Governor General and his judges, today’s independent judges
Power in New France is held exclusively by the King
The Sovereign Council, made up of the governor general and intendant, represented the King in the New France. They had legislative, executive, judicial powers
To ensure its authority was respected, the State had three means of control: the army, exemplary punishments and demonstrations of power.
17th and 18th centuries an alliance between the State and Aboriginal peoples served the interests and objectives of both parties.
The State granted many privileges to the Church, whose influence over the people and Aboriginal allies allowed for social order to be maintained.
Nobles devoted themselves to the king with absolute loyalty in exchange for certain privileges (positions as officials, judges, etc.)
Although they made up more than 80% of the population, peasants and artisans had no political rights and had no influence over the government
The Province of Quebec was created by the Royal Proclamation in 1763. It was subject to the decisions of the mother country (GB) and was governed by a British governor, who aided by a council appointed by the King.
Colonist tried to influence the decisions of the authorities by creating newspapers, petitions and associations. The governor was only bound to serving the King, not the people.
The state relied on the support of three important social groups: Aboriginal peoples, the Canadien nobility and the Catholic Church
Many bourgeois Canadien joined British merchants asking for the creation of a Legislative Assembly
In 1791, the Constitutional Act created Upper and Lower Canada and gave each territory its own Legislative Assembly.
The groups: Aboriginal peoples, the PartiCanadiencalled for more power to be given to the Legislative Assembly
The PartiCanadienbecame the PartiPatriote(more radicalized with stonger demands) and was stronlgy opposed by the British Party, Catholic Church and Canadien nobles
When the PartiPatriotes demands in the 92 Resolutions were not met, rebellions broke out in Lower Canada in 1837-38. The rebellion was crushed and the leaders were either hanged or deported.
In response to the rebellions, Lord Durham’s report suggested merging Upper and Lower Canada into one United Canada, in an attempt to assimilate the Canadiensin to a British majority.