Sandeep gokhale
Download
1 / 92

Sandeep Gokhale - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 137 Views
  • Uploaded on

Financial Management. Sandeep Gokhale. References. Financial Management Authors : Khan & Jain Prasanna Chandra Myers Van Horne. Syllabus. Ratio Analysis Fund & Cash flow analysis Cost of Capital Working Capital Mgmt. Means of Financing Capital Budgeting Dividend Structuring

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Sandeep Gokhale' - barney


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Sandeep gokhale

Financial Management

Sandeep Gokhale


References
References

Financial Management

Authors :

  • Khan & Jain

  • Prasanna Chandra

  • Myers

  • Van Horne


Syllabus
Syllabus

  • Ratio Analysis

  • Fund & Cash flow analysis

  • Cost of Capital

  • Working Capital Mgmt.

  • Means of Financing

  • Capital Budgeting

  • Dividend Structuring

  • Bonus Shares

  • Share Holder Value Measurement


FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

Objective: Create share holder value

Methodology: Capturing of value at all Levels.

Business Process restructuring

Enterprise resource management.

Vertically integrated operations.

Customer relationship Management

Sustained up scaling of operations

Effectiveness: Proximity of gross profit to net profit

Maximisation of EVA

EV / EBIDTA multiple


Financial Management – an Overview

Business environment

Planning Policies&Decisions

(Management Accounting)

Restructuring

Resource Mobilisation

Treasury

Financial Markets

Investor Wish List

Control&Information

( Audit & Taxation)

Valuation Technique


Environmental scan

Economy:

Convertibility of Local Currency

GDP / Industrial growth rate

Scalability of Operations

FDI – Incoming / outgoing

Inflation rate / Fiscal deficit

Trade surplus/deficits

Balance of payment status

WTO Implications

Emerging markets scenario

Gross national income distribution


Government Policy:

Industrial policy

Government programmes and projects

Tax regime

Subsidies, incentives and concessions

Exim policies / VAT

Government Expenditure

Lending considerations of financial institutions and commercial banks

Infrastructure Development

Rating of Govt paper

Agricultural policies


Technology:

Emergence of new technologies.

Access to technical Up gradation

Level of obsolescence.

Socio Demographic:

Population trends

Age shifts in population

Educational profile.

Attitudes toward consumption and investment


Competition:

Number of players in the industry and their market share.

Duty barrier and status of international cost and volume positioning.

Degree of homogeneity and differentiation among products.

Entry barriers for new capacities.

Comparison with substitute products.

Unorganised sector operations.

Marketing polices and practices.


ORGANISATIONAL INTERFACE OF FINANCE

Areas Interface

Corp planning: Long term financial goals in terms of assets, sales,profits,dividends etc.

Expansion, new projects diversifications

takeovers , mergers,disinvestments.

Internal generation, tax planning.

Operations: Integrating functional plans.

Working capital management


Areas Interface

Control:Budgetary control of all divisions

Variance analysis

Marketing: Credit norms

Cost analysis of decisions like discounts , premium pricing,product promotion etc.

Manufacturing: Budgeting for manufacturing operations.

Product mix decisions.

Personnel: Budgeting for personnel & administrative function.


FINANCIAL FUNCTION

Money Mgmt

Accounting

Control

Advisory Role

Financial Accounting

Project Financing

Resource Mobilisation

Budgets

Working Capital Mgmt

Cost Accounting

Variance Analysis

Pricing

Investment

Mgmt

Mgmt Accounting

Profit Center

Div. Policy

Cost Center

Valuation of Assets


Financial decision areas
Financial Decision Areas

  • Investment analysis

  • Working capital management

  • Sources and cost of funds

  • Determination of capital structure

  • Dividend policy

  • Analysis of risks & returns

  • Treasury - interest / exchange rate swaps

  • Restructuring of operations / term debt profile

  • Equity buyback / Bonus / Capitalisation

  • To result in shareholder wealth maximisation


PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT

For the Period 1st April to March 31st

Income:

Gross sales from Goods & Services

Less: Excise Duty

Net Sales

Other Income

Non operating Income

Total Income


Expenditure:

Raw materials consumed

Manufacturing expenses

Administrative expenses

Selling expenses

WIP +FG adjustment

PBIDT (Gross Profit)

Less: Interest

Less Depreciation

PBT (Operating Profit)

Less: Tax

PAT (net profit)

Gross cash accruals : PAT + Depn

Net cash accruals : GCA - Dividend


THE BALANCE SHEET

For the year ended March 31st 200...

Liabilities:

Equity share capital

Reserves & Surplus

Term loan

Debentures

Fixed deposits

Other unsecured loans

Commercial bank borrowings

Creditors

Other current liabilities


Assets:

Gross fixed assets

Less: Acc. Depn

Net Block

Investments

Currents Assets: RM Stock

WIP

F.G.Stock

Debtors

Cash in bank

Loans & Advances

Misc.. expenditure

Deferred expenditure


RATIO ANALYSIS

Principal tool for analysis

Inter firm comparison

Intra firm comparison

Industry analysis

Responsibility accounting


TYPES OF FINANCIAL RATIOS

Liquidity

Leverage

Turnover

Profitability / Valuation


LIQUIDITY RATIOS

Current Ratio: Current assets

Current liabilities

Acid test ratio: C.A- Inventories

Current liabilities

Cash position ratio: Cash in bank + hand

Current liabilities

Inventory to G.W.C: Inventory

Current assets


LEVERAGE RATIOS

Debt / Equity ratio: Long term debt

Net worth

Borrowing / Assets: 1 - Net worth

Total Assets

Fixed asset / Networth: Fixed Assets

Net worth


Capital gearing ratio: Capital entitled to fixed return

Capital not entitled to fixed return

Debt. Service coverage ratio: PBDIT - Tax

Interest + Annual installment

Interest coverage ratio: PBDIT - Tax

Interest

F. Asset coverage ratio: Gross fixed asset - Acc. Depn

LT Secured liabilities


ACTIVITY RATIOS

Total asset turnover: Net sales

Total assets

Fixed asset turnover: Net sales

Fixed assets

Inventory turnover: Net sales

Inventory


Debtors turnover: Credit sales

Avg. debtor

Collection period: Avg. debtor * 365

CR. Sales

Creditors Turnover: Credit purchase

Avg.. Creditors

Payment period: Avg. Creditor * 365

Net Purchases


PROFITABILITY / VALUATION RATIOS

Gross profit ratio: PBDIT / Sales

EBITDA / Sales

RONW : PAT / Networth

ROSE: PAT - Pref. Div

Net worth

Return on CAP. Employed: PBIT

Total Lia - Creditors – Provisions

Return on Investment : PBIT / Investments


Book value per share: Net Worth

NO of Equity Shares

EV / EBITDA: Enterprise value / Gross profit

Earning per share: PAT - Pref Div

No. of Equity shares

Price Earning ratio: Market price

Earnings per share

Pay out ratio: Dividend paid

Profit after Tax


USERS OF FINANCIAL RATIOS

Lenders of funds for appraising credit worthiness for long term / short term lending decisions.

Valuations in investment / disinvestment decisions.

Financial analyst / Mutual Funds / Investment Bankers.

Management for operational short / longterm planning.

Credit Rating Agencies

Tax authorities


  • LIMITATIONS OF RATIO ANALYSIS

  • A ratio in absolute terms has no meaning. It has to be compared.

  • Inter firm comparison.

  • Companies resort to window dressing of Balance sheets.

  • Operating and accounting practices differ from company to company.

  • Consolidation of group / subsidiary companies figures.

  • E.G. Changes in Depreciation methods

  • Inventory Valuation

  • Treatment of contingent liabilities.

  • Valuation of investments.

  • Conversion or transaction of foreign exchange items.


FUND FLOW ANALYSIS

It is a statement indicating the methods by which a company has been financed and the uses to which it has applied its funds over a period of time.

It provide an insight into the movement of funds and helps in understanding the changes in the structure of asset & liabilities.

Provides information as to how funds are raised and utilised.

Determines need for funds and helps in deciding finance mix

Determines financial consequences of business decisions.

Free cash flow generation ability and Utilisation of the same.


FUND MANAGEMENT

Requirement

Mobilisation

Quantum

Source

Cost

Equity Buy back

Normal Capital expenditure

IncrementalWorkingcapital

New Investments


FUND FLOW OCCASIONS

Sources Uses

Funds from operations Loss from operations

Sale of fixed assets Increase in fixed assets

Increase in liabilities Redemption of liabilities

Sale of securities Purchase of securities

Decrease in W.C Increase In W.C

Cash Dividends, Equitybuy back


FUND FLOW

Assets Uses of funds

Liabilities Uses of funds

Assets Source of funds

Liabilities Source of funds

Comparison of balance sheets of consecutive years.


TYPES OF FUND FLOW STATEMENTS

OVERALL FUND FLOW

OPERATIONAL FUND FLOW

WORKING CAPITAL BASED FUND FLOW

(ONLY STS/STU STATEMENT)


COST OF CAPITAL

Aggregate of the liabilities raised by a company is the total capital employed in business.

Different sources have different cost and tax implications.

Cost of capital

It is a single rate (weighted average ) for a finance mix.

It is computed on a post - tax basis since cost of different sources have different tax implications

E.g.. Interest on debt capital enjoys tax shield while dividend paid on equity has no tax shield.

COC is used as a discounting rate in DCF analysis.


  • RELEVANCE OF COC

  • Used as a hurdle rate in DCF analysis.

  • Wt. Average cost of capital

  • Marginal cost of capital

  • K0 = Ki + Ke

  • K0 = WT. Average cost of capital

  • Ki = Cost of debt capital

  • Ke = Cost of equity capital


  • COST OF CAPITAL

  • Consists of three components:

  • Risk less cost of a particular type of finance (rj)

  • Business risk premium(b)

  • Finance risk premium(f)

  • K0 = rj + b + f



METHODS OF COMPUTATION OF COST OF EQUITY OF CAPITAL

ROI approach

Ke = PAT - pref. div + non tax shield portion of depn

Equity block (E + R +S + acc depn)

Market capitalisation approach

Ke = D/P + G

D = Dividend per share G = Growth rate = b*r

P = Market price per share

b= % Retained earnings = PAT - Dividends / PAT

r = % Return on “b” = PAT - Pref div / Net worth


Capital Asset Pricing model OF CAPITAL

Ke = Rf +beta ( Rf – Rm)

Rf = risk free rate of return

Beta = stock relationship with a index

Rm = Market expectations of return ( Bloomberg base )


  • If ROI approach is used to determine Ke then book value to be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

  • All cost to be considered on a post tax basis.

  • The market capitalization approach is superior to the ROI approach since the parameters are market determined and futuristic as compared to the ROI approach.

  • The CAPM approach is a further refinement which also includes premium for risk

  • In loss making companies minimum cash flow approach is used.

  • Cost of equity could be benchmarked with return on guilts,market risk and portfolio risk ( Asset Beta )


WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

Objective: Optimise current asset deployment.

Advantages: Lower interest cost.

Inventory holding cost reduced.

Disadvantages: Interruption in production.

Stock out to customers.


ASSET STRUCTURE FOR VARIOUS INDUSTRIAL SEGMENTS be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

FA CA

Power Generation 80% 20%

Chemical process plants 50% 50%

Engineering 40% 60%

Service 20% 80%

Trading 10% 90%


WORKING CAPITAL be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

Current assets comprise of stocks of raw materials, work in progress, finished goods, and receivables.

Gross working capital = total current assets.

Net working capital = CA - CL

Objective is to optimse asset requirement and funding the same at minimal cost.

Working capital

requirement

Permanent component

Variable component)


CONSTITUENTS OF CURRENT ASSETS be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

Raw material stock

Work in progress

Finished goods stock

Cash in hand / bank

Debtors / Receivables


OPERATING CYCLE TIME be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

Time required for rolling or rotation of current assets.

Date of receipt RM issued to Throughput time

of RM production Dept

Collection of Despatched to consumers Converted to FG

Receivables


  • FACTORS INFLUENCING WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

  • Nature of business

  • Manufacturing process

  • Competitive forces in raw material & finished goods segment.

  • Infrastructural support.

  • Through put time

  • Seasonality in demand

  • Shelf life of RM / Finished product

  • Customer relationship management


  • CREDIT MANAGEMENT be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

  • Terms of payment Cash against delivery

  • Consignee basis

  • Proforma invoice

  • Letter of credit

  • Advances

  • Suppliers / Buyers LOC

  • Credit policy variablesCredit standards

  • Credit period

  • Cash Discounts


  • Credit evaluation Character be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

  • Capacity

  • Capital

  • Collateral

  • Macro conditions

  • Control of accounts Days sales outstanding

  • receivables Ageing schedule (in days)

  • Collection matrix

  • Average collection period


  • RECEIVABLES MANAGEMENT be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

  • Credit standards Collection cost

  • Average collection period

  • Bad debts

  • Level of incremental sale

  • Credit terms

  • Collection policies

  • Factoring


CASH MANAGEMENT be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

Cash budgets : Quarterly / monthly / weekly

Operating cash inflow/ outflow items:

Cash inflowCash outflow

Cash sales Accounts payable

Collection of receivables R.M purchase

Salary

factory expense

Administration/selling exp.

Taxes / Duties


  • WORKING CAPITAL FINANCING be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

  • Cash accruals

  • Trade credit

  • Commercial bank borrowings

  • Cash credit limit

  • WCTL

  • Bill discounting

  • Letter of credit

  • Bank guarantee

  • Public deposits


  • Short term / medium term loans from FI’s Banks be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

  • Debentures for working capital

  • Commercial Paper.

  • Euro Commercial Borrowings

  • Inter Corporate deposits

  • Trade credit notes ( commodity exchanges )

  • Factors


  • Long Term Financing be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

  • Basis of evaluation

  • Availability

  • Flexibility

  • Cost

  • Availability : should be available at the point / time when required

  • Flexibility : certain instruments are user/ application specific

  • Cost : to be evaluated on a post tax basis


  • SOURCES OF TERM FINANCE be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

  • Term loans from Financial institutions & Banks

  • State level financial institutions

  • Debentures: NCD

  • PCD

  • OFCD

  • Fixed Deposits

  • Equity share capital

  • Equity share capital with differential rights

  • Non voting shares

  • Preference share capital

  • Mutual Funds


  • Retained earnings be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

  • Exchangeables

  • Venture Capital

  • Deferred payment gurantees

  • Leasing

  • External commercial borrowings

  • Depository receipts

  • Floating interest rate Debt.

  • Securitisation of future receivables

  • Derivative linked bonds


  • FINANCIAL / INVESTMENT INSTITUTIONS be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

  • They are major source of long term debt funds for financing:

  • Fixed Assets

  • Margin money for working capital

  • Indian FI’s

  • IDBI / ICICI / IFCI / IIBI

  • Foreign Institutions

  • Sectoral Institutions

  • HDFC / IL&FS / HUDCO / IDFC

  • Universal Banks

  • ICICI Bank


  • Investment institutions be considered as weights.If market capitalization approach is used then market value to be considered as weights.

  • GIC & Subsidiaries

  • UTI

  • LIC

  • Investment Banks

  • 23 State level financial institutions (IDC’s)

  • 23 State level financial institutions (MSFC)

  • Scheduled Commercial Banks


Features: Interest rate is based upon the prime lending rate + project risk.

Basic interest rate linked to inflation rate

Linked to G-Sec rate or Sub - SBAR ( SBI PLR )

Security Hypothecation & mortgage

Collateral

Covenants

Moratorium period

Amortisation schedule

Door to Door tenure


  • GUIDE LINES FOR KEY RATIOS rate + project risk.

  • DCSR > 1.8 TIMES

  • D/E 1:5:1

  • Promoters contribution : 20 - 25%

  • CR: > 1.33

  • ADDITIONAL FEATURES :

  • Interest rate re-set clause

  • Tapering of interest rate post project risk


  • Debentures: rate + project risk.

  • Approval from SEBI mandatory if public issue is proposed

  • Debentures used to finance margin money not to exceed more than 20% of N.W.C

  • Convertibility clause terms to be specified at issuance time.

  • Credit rating mandatory


  • Types of Debentures: rate + project risk.

  • NCD

  • FCD

  • PCD

  • OCD

  • Coupon rate depends on terms of issue.

  • Other features

  • No TDS for interest paid upto Rs 2500 per annum

  • Redemption premium

  • Listing on stock exchanges

  • Fully secured

  • Call and put options


  • Advantages from Issuer’s point of view: rate + project risk.

  • Lower cost due to low risk and tax deductibility of interest payment.

  • No / limited dilution of control

  • Offer stable return to investors having fixed maturity

  • and subsequently redemption/ conversion to equity

  • No increase in equity base during non conversion period

  • Fixed deposits

  • Limit on quantum : 25% of networth

  • Cost : 8-10 % depending on maturity period & risk

  • unsecured


  • EQUITY SHARE CAPITAL rate + project risk.

  • Authorised , issued, subscribed and paid up

  • Par value, issue price, book value, market value

  • Residual claims on Income /Assets

  • No upper limit

  • Costliest sources of finance

  • Entails permanent servicing by way of dividends without tax shield

  • Voting rights/ Control in management/ Limited liability

  • Under preview of SEBI and SEB guidelines

  • Buy Back allowed


  • Equity investments in foreign cos allowed to resident indian shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

  • For Listing on exchanges atleast 10% to be offered to the public by way of a prospectus

  • Issuance of Non-Voting & differential rights shares allowed

  • Debentures on conversion becomes equity share capital.

  • Listed / Unlisted shares

  • Sweat Equity / Employee Stock Options


EVALUATION OF ESC shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

Company’s point of view

Advantages

Represents almost permanent capital

Does not involve any fixed obligation for servicing

Enhances credit worthiness of the company to secure additional debt.

Disadvantages

High cost of capital

Dividends paid on profit after tax further subjected to dividend distribution tax of 15%

High flotation cost

Dilution of control (Treasury issue)


Investors point of view shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

Advantages

Enjoy voting right in the company with limited liability.

Short term capital gains tax reduced to 10%

Long term Capital gains tax abolished. ( Exchange traded securities )

Indexation benefit available under 54E.

Disadvantages

Controlling power could be notional

Turn over tax at 15 basis points on sale of the security on an exchange

Have residual claim to income / assets

Vide fluctuations in stock price

Dividend’s subjected to distribution tax of 15%


Retained earnings shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

Made up of Accumulated depreciationand retained profits.

Represent the internal sources of finance available to the company.

Availability : Level of profitability / payout ratio

Cost : Identical to ESC.

Flexibility : High


Advantages shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

Reinvestment of profit may be convenient to many shareholders.

No dilution of control since Co. Relies on retained earnings

No flotation cost/ Losses on account of underpricing.

Proceeds could be used in a subsequent buyback.

Disadvantages

High opportunity cost

Limitation on amount

Bonus issue may capitalise reserves

.


Preference share capital shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

Fixed minimum dividend rate

No voting rights

Prior claim on income / assets

Redeemable at issuer’s & investor’s discretion

Features:

No dilution of control

Provision to skip dividend in absence of profits


CAPTAL BUDGETING shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.


  • Capital investment decision shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

  • Capital investments involve increase in the fixed assets of a company.

  • (Expansion / diversification / Green field / takeover / merger)

  • Characteristics of investments

  • Capital outlay needs to be made up front returns come later

  • Certain amount of risk is involved

  • Capital investment tend to be indivisible. (difficult to phase out).

  • Financial techniques

  • The purpose of financial techniques is to enable the making of investment acceptance / rejection decisions.


Non financial factors in project appraisal shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

Market

Technical

Infrastructure

Ecological

Economic

Influence of non - financial factors

Financial projections

Gestation period

Profitability

Life of project / Terminal value

Sensitivity analysis


NON FINANCIAL FACTORS DETERMINING shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

FINANCIAL VIABILITY OF PROJECTS

Market factors

Present and future size of the market

Present and future demand and supply situation

Achievable market share

Selling & distribution channels

Technical factors

Level of Technological obsolence

Plant location

Scales of operation

Raw material & utilities consumption norms


Ecological factors shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

Pollutant levels

Treatment of effluent

Environmental impact of the project

Economic factors

Social cost benefit analysis

Economic rate of protection

Domestic resource cost

Protection enjoyed by industry.


FINANCIAL TECHNIQUES IN CAPITAL BUDGETING shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

Return on investment

AVG ROI = PBIT

(over 10 yrs) Total Inv.

Advantages

Simple to calculate and easy to understand

Maximisation of shareholders wealth and maximising the marketvalue of investments.

.Disadvantages

Time value of money not considered

It is a concept based on profit and not cash

No objective criterion for acceptance / Rejection decision.


Payback period shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

It is the time required to get back the original investment companies going through liquidity crisis /for small investments will use the pay back period method.

Disadvantages

Cash inflows / Outflows after payback Period are ignored.

Time value for money is ignored


Discounted cash flow (DCF) shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

Cash inflow and outflow for the entire life of the project is considered.

It considers time value for money as a result earnings in earlier years have higher value than earned in later years.

IRR Method

IRR is that rate of discount at which the net present value of cash flows equals net present value of cash outflows.

If IRR > COC Investment is support worthy.

NPV method

Using COC discount the netflows

If NPV is + VE investment is support worthy..


Comparison of elements
Comparison of elements shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.


Comparison of elements1
Comparison of elements shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.


  • CONCEPTS IN CAPITAL BUDGETING shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

  • Life of project

  • Physical

  • Market

  • Techno efficient

  • Incremental principle

  • Sunk / Allocated costs to be ignored

  • Only incremental cash flows to be considered

  • Evaluation of post tax basis since COC is on a post tax basis

  • Principle of separation of “Finance” from “Investment “ decision.

  • Financing cost (interest) to be ignored.

  • Effect of tax shield on the company as a whole to be considered


PROJECT COST COMPONENTS shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

Land

Civil Construction

Plant & Machinery

Misc Fixed Assets

Erection and commissioning

Technical Know how fees

Preliminary & preoperative expenses

Contingencies

Total Capital Cost

Margin money for working capital

Total project cost


PROJECT CASH FLOWS shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

Cash outflows Capital expenditure

Margin money

Normal capital expenditure

Cash inflow Net cash accruals

Salvage value

Recovery of WC


Npv vs irr conflict
NPV vs IRR conflict shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

  • NPV is technically superior to IRR and is also able to handle selection of mutually exclusive projects.

  • The decision rule for the NPV assumes that cash flows resulting during the life cycle of the project have an opportunity cost equal to the discount rate used.

  • The decision rule for the IRR assumes that such resulting cash flows have an opportunity cost equal to IRR which generated them.

  • NPV approach provides an absolute measure that fully represents the value from the project to a company.

  • IRR by contrast provides a % figure from which the benefits in terms of wealth creation cannot be grasped.


Capital budgeting sensitivity analysis
Capital Budgeting Sensitivity Analysis shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

  • Monte Carlo Simulation

  • Break even analysis

  • Decision tree analysis

  • Expected value Criterion

  • Alternate buisness plans


Share holder value creation
Share holder value creation shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

  • Cash Dividends

  • Stock Dividends

  • Bonus Shares

  • Bonus Debentures-issued from free reserves

  • Equity Buy back / Secondary Listing

  • Stock Split

  • Synergic Investments

  • Synergic Acquisitions

  • Disinvest out of unrelated businesses

  • Shares of holding co. with fungibility


DIVIDEND STRUCTURING shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

Appropriation of PAT towards Dividend pay out and Reserves

Payout ratio = Dividend paid / PAT

Retention ratio = PAT - Dividend paid / PAT

Dividend rate (%) could be high but payout could be low.

Dividend rate will be depended upon the PAT, Payout ratio and Equity base.


Dividend Structuring shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

100% retention scenario

For some shareholders dividend acts as a regular income source EX: investor’s for whom it is a regular source of income, mutual funds, investment companies.

Declaration of dividend is perceived as an indication that the companies operations are profitable.

100% payout scenario

Repeated raising of capital increases floatation cost

Companies requirement for expansion / margin money / new investment.

Tax inefficient due to 15% distribution tax.


  • Factors influencing dividend policy shareholder in the event foregin co has 10% stake in indian co.

  • If the appetite for funds is high due to increase in level of exsisting operation or due to major capital investment plan then a high retention policy will be adopted.

  • A closely held company having major capital investment plans will follow a low pay out policy so that internal accruals could act as a major source of finance in the future thereby reducing dependence on infusion of fresh equity.

  • Tax implications

  • Company has to pay 12.5% distribution tax.Recipient of dividend tax exempted in the shareholders hands..

  • Section 80-M exemption at 100%


  • Restriction in loan agreement / government regulations / FI’s on on payment of dividend during the currency of the loan.

  • Legal requirement under Companies act.

  • Liquidity position : Higher PAT does not necessarily mean healthy liquidity. A strained liquidity position would force a policy of low payout.

  • Stability in the rate of dividend : companies usually follow a policy of gradually rising or stable dividend policy and not directly link it with PAT.

  • Generally the Indian corporate sector follows a payout policy of 30% . The retention ratio keeps increasing so as to counter inflation, floatation cost, help in Equity buyback etc.


  • BONUS SHARES FI’s on on payment of dividend during the currency of the loan.

  • Bonus share are issued to existing share holders as a result of capitalization of reserves.

  • In the wake of a bonus issue

  • The shareholders proportional ownership remains unchanged

  • The book value, market price, E.P.S decreases.

  • Fallout of a bonus issue

  • Normally the Ex-bonus price comes down by the proportion of bonus given with a mark up of approximately 30 - 35%

  • More active trading in stock exchanges.

  • The nominal rate of dividend tends to decline this may dispel the impression of profiteering.

  • Shareholders regard a bonus issue as a firm indication that the prospects for the company are good.

  • Capital gains tax exemptions with indexation available for bonus issue


GUIDELINES FOR ISSUE OF BONUS SHARES FI’s on on payment of dividend during the currency of the loan.

Issuer : Security exchange board of India

Bonus issue should be made from capitalisation of free reserves built out of genuine profits and share premium.Reserves created by revaluation of assets, statutory reserves etc. are not allowed for capitalisation

Bonus issue greater than 1:1 allowed

Residual reserve test: residual reserves after the proposed capitalisation should be at least 40% of the increased capital For computation all contingent liabilities, statutory reserves and revaluation reserves to be excluded.

Yield test: 30% of the average P.B.T for the last 3 years should give a return of at least 10% on the enhanced capital.

Bonus in lieu of dividend is not permitted


If R = Reserves before bonus issue FI’s on on payment of dividend during the currency of the loan.

S = Share capital before bonus issue

B = Bonus Quantum

PRT = Average PBT for last 3 years

RPT = .4 (S + B) > (R - B)

YIELD TEST = .3 (PBT) > (.1) (S+B)

Bonus issue also to be given to debenture holders if there is an impending conversion.


ad