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24. Lect_24_Evolut_ecology_final . . . Escherichia coli . . . . . . . : .
Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution
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Van Valen L. A new evolutionary law // Evolutionary Theory. 1973. V. 1. P. 1-30
For an evolutionary system, continuing development is needed just in order to maintain its fitness relative to the systems it is co-evolving with
"Well, in our country," said Alice, still panting a little, "you'd generally get to somewhere else - if you ran very fast for a long time, as we've been doing."
"A slow sort of country!" said the Queen. "Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that!"
"I'd rather not try, please!" said Alice. "I'm quite content to stay here - only I am so hot and thirsty! "
Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place.
Levin B.R., Bergstrom C.T. Bacteria are different: observations, interpretations, speculations, and opinions about the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in prokaryotes // Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2000. V.97. P. 6981-6985
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When organisms adapt genetically to one environment, they may lose fitness in other environments. Two distinct population genetic processes can produce ecological specialization mutation accumulation and antagonistic pleiotropy. In mutation accumulation, mutations become fixed by genetic drift in genes that are not maintained by selection; adaptation to one environment and loss of adaptation to another are caused by different mutations. Antagonistic pleiotropy arises from trade-offs, such that the same mutations that are beneficial in one environment are detrimental in another. In general, it is difficult to distinguish between these processes. We analysed the decay of unused catabolic functions in 12 lines of Escherichia coli propagated on glucose for 20,000 generations. During that time, several lines evolved high mutation rates. If mutation accumulation is important, their unused functions should decay more than the other lines, but no significant difference was observed. Moreover, most catabolic losses occurred early in the experiment when beneficial mutations were being rapidly fixed, a pattern predicted by antagonistic pleiotropy. Thus, antagonistic pleiotropy appears more important than mutation accumulation for the decay of unused catabolic functions in these populations.
David N. Reznick et. al. 1997. Evaluation of the Rate of Evolution in Natural Populations of Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) // Science 28 March 1997:Vol. 275. no. 5308, pp. 1934 - 1937
Contr (high predation) Experim
Aripo River (11 years or 18.1 generations)
Male age (days) 48.6 (1.1) 58.2 (1.3)
Male size (mg) 67.5 (1.6) 76.1 (1.9)
Female age (days) 85.6 (2.2) 93.5 (2.6)
Female size (mg) 162.3 (6.4) 189.2
El Cedro River (7.5 years or 12.7 generations)
Male age (days) 47.3 (1.1) 52.5 (0.6)
Male size (mg)71.5 (1.1) 74.4 (0.7)
Female age (days) 75.8 (1.8) 80.4 (1.0)
Female size (mg) 141.8 (5.1) 152.1 (3.2)
. Robert Olendorf, F. Helen Rodd, David Punzalan, Anne E. Houde, Carla Hurt, David N. Reznick, Kimberly A. Hughes. Frequency-dependent survival in natural guppy populations // Nature. 2006. V. 441. P. 633-636
- , , , , , , Robert Olendorfet al. Frequency-dependent survival in natural guppy populations // Nature. 2006. V. 441. P. 633-636
, : Rivulus hartii, Crenicichla alta.
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Greene E., Lyon B.E., Muehter V.R. et al. // Nature. 2000. V.407. P.1000-1003
a, Dull yearling (plumage score, 17.5). b, Intermediate yearling (plumage score, 26). c, Bright yearling (plumage score, 31). d, Bright adult (plumage score, 34). e, Distribution of plumage scores of adult males (upper histogram) and yearling males (lower histogram). Yearling males have significantly lower plumage scores (24.9) than adults (32.1)
Left - adult males; right - yearling males. a, b , Distribution of plumagescores for males who obtained social mates (above) and those who did not(below). c, d, Relation between plumage score and territory quality. e, f, Relation between plumage colour and number of chicks sired in a male's own nest, assessed by DNA fingerprinting. Unpaired males with no nests were assigned zeros.
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B ( ) ( ) . 1970- , .: Schoener T. (Science. 28 January 2011. V. 331. P. 426-429) Hairston et al. 2005. ( P. Grant & R. Grant)
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Gould S.J., Lewontin R.C.
The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme// Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B. 1979. V. 205. P. 581-598
The spandrels of San Marco
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Lonnie W. Aarssen Some bold evolutionary predictions for the future of mating in humans // Oikos. 2007. V. 116. No. 10. P. 17681778.
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