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History. Pre 1950 : the very first electronic computers valves and relays no OS single program with dedicated function Pre 1960 : stored program valve machines single job at a time OS just consists of a program loader. program. CPU. printer. 1960: transistor machines example: DEC PDP-8

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History l.jpg

Operating Systems: History

History

  • Pre 1950 : the very first electronic computers

    • valves and relays

    • no OS

    • single program with dedicated function

  • Pre 1960 : stored program valve machines

    • single job at a time

    • OS just consists of a program loader

program

CPU

printer


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Operating Systems: History

  • 1960: transistor machines

    • example: DEC PDP-8

      • first Edinburgh Univ. computer, 1965

      • 4K 12-bit words of magnetic core memory; 1.5sec cycle time

    • RIM loader read in Binary loader

    • Binary loader read in executable from paper tape

      • a primitive BIOS

    • user program drives I/O devices directly

      • usually by polling

      • interrupts also possible

    • ‘walk up and use’ computer

    • illustrates ‘data rate mismatch’ problem


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Operating Systems: History

Post 1960 : Batch systems on mainframe computers

collections of jobs made up into a batch

example: IBM 1401/7094

card decks spooled onto magnetic tape and from tape to printer

example: English Electric Leo KDF9

first Edinburgh Univ. mainframe, 1968

32K 48-bit words, 2sec cycle time

punched paper-tape input ‘walk-up’ service or spooling via mag tape


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Operating Systems: History

OS consisted of an input/output system for reading and writing magnetic tapes and a command interpreter for JCL on cards

speed mismatch problem reduced with fast mag tape but not removed

pipelining allowed next job to be read in whilst results of previous job being written to mag tape


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Operating Systems: History

1965: Multiple Job Stream Batch Systems

several jobs resident in memory together

a multiprogramming OS

CPU switched around the jobs in turn

I/O delays overlapped with other running jobs

jobs stay resident until finished

OS

job 1 job 2 job 3


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Operating Systems: History

  • IBM MFT - ‘Multiprogramming with Fixed Tasks’

    • fixed partition boundaries

  • IBM MVT - ‘Multiprogramming with Variable Tasks’

    • dynamic partition sizes and positions

    • OS scheduled jobs to minimise memory wastage


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Operating Systems: History

  • example: Manchester University ATLAS, 1963

    • 32kwords 48-bit memory 1sec cycle time

    • multiprogramming batch system

    • used remotely by Edinburgh Univ. via off-line paper-tape

  • Problems introduced by multiprogramming:

    • jobs had to run at different places in memory

    • inefficient use of expensive memory

    • one job could interfere with another e.g. overwrite other jobs memory

    • jobs could clash over use of I/O devices


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    Operating Systems: History

    • Overcome by using:

      • relocating linkers and loaders

      • hardware relocation base and limit registers

        • read/write/execute protected access

      • OS controlled access to I/O devices

    • Virtual memory architectures

      • pages and demand-paging

      • invented in Manchester and used first on ATLAS

      • 512 word pages + swap disc

      • segmentation came later


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    Operating Systems: History

    • 1970: Multi-Access Interactive Time-Sharing Systems

      • powerful machines very expensive

      • need to share use between many users

      • simultaneous interactive use

      • new OS and software technology for time-sharing

        • virtual memory pages and segments

        • processes

          • with a continuing existence, not just for life of job execution

          • memory resident, swapped out to disc, blocked, waiting etc.

        • command interpreters, on-line editors

        • file systems, back-up and archiving

        • TTY terminals - no VDUs until later

        • still stand-alone - no networking


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    Operating Systems: History

    Various Development Projects

    • Project MAC at MIT on IBM 7094, 1966

    • MULTICS by a consortium on GE645, 1969

    • EMAP in Edinburgh University on EEC 4-75, 1970

      • joint project with ICL

      • 4-75: 1Mb memory, 4kb pages and 64kb segments

      • 50 simultaneous users

      • used in Edinburgh until 1989

      • ported onto ICL 2900 in mid-1970s

        • 100 users

        • dual processor version

      • final port onto NEC (IBM 370 clone)

        • 100s of users

      • overtaken by UNIX-based systems


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    Operating Systems: History

    • Mini-computer systems

      • DEC VAX (VMS Operating System), Prime, Wang, Interdata, . . . . . . . .

      • between mainframes and workstations in cost and performance

    • Workstation systems

      • increasingly cost-effective since 1980

      • Sun, IBM PC, Apple Mac

    • Networks of workstations

      • ethernet, token rings etc.

    • Parallel systems

      • large numbers of loosely connected machines

      • only a minimal OS in each

        • usually a separate front-end machine running a normal OS for I/O

      • examples: Connection Machine, Cray T3E in EPCC etc.


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