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Globalization, e-Learning & The Art of War. Presenter:. Tan Wee Hoe ( whtan@miit.unikl.edu.my ) Instructor / R&D Coordinator Malaysian Institute Information Technology Universiti Kuala Lumpur . Authors:. Tan Wee Hoe, MIIT, UniKL Stanley Richardson, Multimedia University. Aim of Paper.

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Globalization, e-Learning & The Art of War

Presenter:

Tan Wee Hoe (whtan@miit.unikl.edu.my)

Instructor / R&D Coordinator

Malaysian Institute Information Technology

Universiti Kuala Lumpur

Authors:

Tan Wee Hoe, MIIT, UniKL

Stanley Richardson, Multimedia University


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Aim of Paper

  • To explore the potential and challenges of e-learning technologies in globalization era.

  • To apply some principles of ‘The Art of War’ to current e-learning.


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Overview

  • Globalization, global education and e-Learning

  • Advantages and potential of global education and e-learning

  • Interdependency of e-Learning and Globalization

  • The Dangers & Challenges of Global Education & e-Learning

  • Sun Tzu’s The Art of War

  • Application of principles of ‘The Art of War’


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Definitions of Globalization

Tight economic definition (Krugman)

  • A catchall phrase for growing world trade, the growing linkages between financial markets in different countries, and the many other ways in which the world is becoming a smaller place.

    Broader social definition (Steger)

  • A multidimensional set of social processes that create, multiply, stretch, and intensify worldwide social interdependencies and exchanges while at the same time fostering in people a growing awareness of deepening connections between the local and the distant.


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Global Education

  • The study of problems & issues which cut across national boundaries, & the interconnectedness of cultural, environmental, economic, political, & technological systems;

  • The cultivation of cross-cultural understanding, which includes development of the skill of “perspective-taking”—that is, being able to see life from someone else’s point of view (ie empathy).

(Tye & Tye,1992)


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Advantages of Global Education

Pedagogical rationale:

  • The reach of the global course

    • Students from many different countries

    • Mitigate against the usually dominant Western world view.

  • The access to the global course

    • Access extended to educationally disadvantaged

  • The teachers on the global course

    • Shared expertise

  • The development of the global course

    • Multi-cultural content

(Mason, 1998)


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E-Learning Technologies

  • The new delivery mechanisms for most global education are electronic (Mason, 1998)—hence the term e-learning.

  • E-learning is any use of web and Internet technologies to deliver solutions that enhance the instructional process. (Tan et al, 2005)


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Potential of e-Learning

  • Interoperability

    • Cross-platform, cross-system

  • Accessibility

    • Anywhere, anytime

  • Reusability

    • Learning objects

  • Sharable learning content

    • Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) compliant learning objects

  • Blended-learning

    • Just-in-need, just-in-time


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Interdependency of e-Learning & Globalization

(Aldrich, 2003)


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The Dangers & Challenges of Global Education & e-Learning

“Those who do not thoroughly comprehend the dangers inherent in employing the army are incapable of truly knowing the potential advantages of military actions.”

Sun Tzu



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Challenges of e-Learning

  • Everyone has learning needs but no one has e-learning needs—e-learning is a solution not an end in itself. (Morrison, 2003)

  • This misapplication of e-learning is sometimes driven by internal competition & ego rather than sound analysis and decision-making…it may not get the front-end assessment, the task analysis, audience analysis, & assessment of learner environment required for quality design & effective learning. (Labonte, 2003)

  • Learning does not equal performance—the enthusiasm with the technical capabilities of e-learning may lead to talking &acting as if e-learning is the silver bullet, the miracle cure for organizational & individual performance problems.(Labonte, 2003)


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Sun Tzu’s The Art of War

  • A Chinese military treatise written during the 6th century BC.

  • The chapters of The Art of War are:



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Application of Principles of The Art of War

“Know the enemy and know yourself; in hundred battles you will never be in peril. When you are ignorant of the enemy but know yourself, your chances of winning or losing are equal. Know neither your enemy nor yourself, you are certain in every battle to be in peril.”

Sun Tzu


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Application of Principles of The Art of War

Teaching & Learning

  • Instructor analyses the instructional setting

    • to identify the learning styles & needs of learners.

    • to determine the types & amount of learning content

    • to determine the instructional methods.

  • Instructor should conduct self-analysis

    • to identify individual research methods

    • to identify preferences & expertise (eg skills & knowledge)

    • to nurture unique instructional methods or styles


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Application of Principles of The Art of War

Teaching & Learning

  • Leaner analyses the learning environment

    • to identify the instructional styles & expectations of instructors.

    • to determine the ways to excel in a particular course.

    • to adapt or customise the learning environment.

  • Learner should conduct self-analysis

    • to identify personal learning needs & style

    • to identify the ‘prime time’ for learning

    • to nurture effective and efficient learning methods.


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Application of Principles of The Art of War

Curriculum Design

  • Standalone course in military science programmes at university level.

  • Principles applied in management subjects

  • To develop learners’ strategic thinking skills.



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Conclusion

  • Although written about 2,500 years ago Sun Tzu’s ‘The Art of War’ is applicable to most human activity today.

  • Instructors and learners can benefit from The Art of War provided that the management of educational institutions are appropriately committed & motivated.

  • The application of Sun Tzu’s principles should ensure that instructors, learners & their organisations are balanced in their approach to e-learning.



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