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Everything Else. Biology. What is Cancer?. Part 1: Biology. The Biology of Cancer. Excess Cell Growth Invasion into Surrounding Tissue Spread to Other Parts of the Body (Called Metastasis ). ?.

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Everything Else

Biology

What is Cancer?



The biology of cancer
The Biology of Cancer

  • Excess Cell Growth

  • Invasion into Surrounding Tissue

  • Spread to Other Parts of the Body (Called Metastasis)


?


DNA is organized in genes, which code RNAs, which code proteins, which do the work of the cell.

Modified from William Gerald


Modified from William Gerald proteins, which do the work of the cell.


Microarray Analysis proteins, which do the work of the cell.

Red = Gene On

Green = Gene Off

Normal

Cancer

Gene A

Gene B

Gene C

Gene C*

Gene A is a Tumor Suppressor Gene

Modified from William Gerald


Microarray Analysis proteins, which do the work of the cell.

Red = Gene On

Green = Gene Off

Normal

Cancer

Gene A

Gene B

Gene C

Gene C*

Gene B is Over-Expressed in Cancer

Modified from William Gerald


Microarray Analysis proteins, which do the work of the cell.

Red = Gene On

Green = Gene Off

Normal

Cancer

Gene A

Gene B

Gene C

Gene C*

Gene C is an Oncogene

Modified from William Gerald


SPARC proteins, which do the work of the cell.

IL13RA2

MMP1

ERG

COX2

CXCL1

MMP2

ID1

RARRES3

EFEMP1

MANT2

LY6E

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9 10 11 12 13 14

15 16 17 18 19

Cancer Cell Lines

Ability to Generate Lung Metastases in Mice

Low

High

Medium

= Lung Metastasis Signature = LMS

82 MSKCC Patients

LMS Negative

LMS Positive

Probability of Being Free of Lung Metastases

p<0.0001

Years of Observation

Minn, Gupta et al.,Nature 2005


400 proteins, which do the work of the cell.

300

200

100

0

Lung Metastasis Genes Are Associated with Faster Growth in the Mouse “Breast”

800

**

700

LMS High

Tumor volume (mm3)

600

LMS Medium

500

LMS Low

**

LMS Low

Days post-injection

0

10

20

30

40

50

Minn, Gupta et al.,Nature 2005


Seeding regional lymph nodes and seeding distant sites use similar (but not identical) genetic tools.


Seeds that have traveled to normal tissue in the organ of origin may later seed distant sites.


Seeding the tumor itself produces rapid growth, anaplasia, and “stem cells” disbursed throughout the mass


Seeded tumours growth, anaplasia, and “stem cells” disbursed throughout the mass

Unseeded tumours

800

IC injection

of LM2 cells

p<0.0001

600

n=14

p<0.005

400

Tumour volume (mm3)

n=15

200

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

Days after tumour initiation

Self-seeding of mammary tumors by circulating cancer cells

Promotion of tumor growth

… by a minority of seeding cells

Mi-Young Kim


Self-seeding of mammary tumors by circulating cancer cells growth, anaplasia, and “stem cells” disbursed throughout the mass

Seeding enhances tumor angiogenesis

… and leukocyte infiltration

Mi-Young Kim


Does the primary tumor site growth, anaplasia, and “stem cells” disbursed throughout the mass

act as a “sponge” for seeds?


Seeding sanctuary sites may create reservoirs for feeding future distant metastases


Norton may create reservoirs for feeding future distant metastaseset al., Nature, 1976

What is the Pattern of Growth of Cancer?

Benjamin Gompertz, 1825


100 may create reservoirs for feeding future distant metastases

1

Self-Seeding Explains Gompertzian Growth

0.01

Cubic Centimeters

0.0001

0.000001

0.00000001

0

20

40

60

80

100

Arbitrary (Arithmetic) Time Scale


Magnetic Resonance Image of Human Breast with Cancer may create reservoirs for feeding future distant metastases


Many New Targets for Therapy may create reservoirs for feeding future distant metastases


Part 2 everything else

Part 2: Everything Else may create reservoirs for feeding future distant metastases


Things i ve learned
Things I’ve Learned may create reservoirs for feeding future distant metastases

  • If you gather all the information you need, decisions make themselves.


Things i ve learned1
Things I’ve Learned may create reservoirs for feeding future distant metastases

  • Make sure you communicate “I’m here to get better,” not “Whatever you do, don’t hurt me.”


Things i ve learned2
Things I’ve Learned may create reservoirs for feeding future distant metastases

  • If you don’t like your doctor, most likely he/she doesn’t like you.


Things i ve learned3
Things I’ve Learned may create reservoirs for feeding future distant metastases

  • When you ask “What is the best therapy for me?” watch out for “What I have to offer you is this.”


Things i ve learned4
Things I’ve Learned may create reservoirs for feeding future distant metastases

  • When you think about your future, think about positive things.

  • Don’t forget the moment.


Things i ve learned5
Things I’ve Learned may create reservoirs for feeding future distant metastases

  • You are more than your body.

  • Make sure that you do something just for yourself every day.


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