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American Life in the 17 th Century. Chapter 4. Chesapeake. American wilderness Brutal Disease Malaria, dysentery, typhoid Life expectancy declined Men outnumbered women 6 to 1 Men could not find mates. Tobacco. Planted tobacco to sell before planting corn to eat Exhausted soil

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chesapeake
Chesapeake
  • American wilderness
    • Brutal
    • Disease
      • Malaria, dysentery, typhoid
  • Life expectancy declined
  • Men outnumbered women 6 to 1
    • Men could not find mates
tobacco
Tobacco
  • Planted tobacco to sell before planting corn to eat
  • Exhausted soil
  • Demand for new land
    • Went further up rivers and pushed west
  • More tobacco = More labor
    • Indentured servants
slide4
Cont.
  • Head-right System
    • Servant Workers
    • Paid passage = 50 acres of land
  • 100,000 Indentured servants = 1700
    • Virginia/ Maryland
bacon s rebellion
Bacon’s Rebellion
  • Freemen = looking for land / Women
  • Governor Berkeley
    • Friendly policies with Native Americans
  • Nathaniel Bacon
    • Looking for untamed land
    • 1,000 broke out of control = 1676
    • Plundering and Pilfering
    • Civil War in Virginia
colonial slavery
Colonial Slavery
  • 7 million slaves to New World
slide7
Cont.
  • 1680’s
    • Black slaves outnumbered whites in plantations colonies
  • Royal African Company = Charter lost
  • Rhode Islanders = Cash in on slave trade
  • 1750
    • ½ population = Virginia
    • Outnumbered 2 to 1 = S. Carolina
colonial slavery1
Colonial Slavery
  • Middle Passage
    • Journey from Africa to the West Indies
  • Passage was extremely difficult
  • 20% of the slaves died on the trip
africans in america
Africans in America
  • Tobacco = less demanding
    • Plantations closer together
    • More contact with other slaves
  • Culture
    • Gullah (Language)
    • Jazz
  • Slave life severe in deep South
    • Life draining
    • Rice/Indigo
slide12
Cont.
  • New York Slave Revolt – 1712
    • 9 whites died
    • 21 slaves executed = burned at the stake
  • South Carolina Slave Revolt – 1739
    • 50 slaves
    • Stono River = Spanish Florida
southern society
Southern Society
  • Small Farmers
    • Largest group
    • Hand to Mouth
    • 1-2 slaves
  • Landless whites
    • Former indentured servants
  • Plantation owners ran the South’s economy
    • Monopolized political power
    • Families = Fitzhughs, Lees, Washingtons
  • Dominated House of Burgesses
  • Hard working, businesslike, long hours
slide14
Cont.
  • Southern families = economic security for women
  • Men died young
  • Women retain separate title to their property
  • Widows right to inherit
slide15
Cont.
  • Few cities sprouted
  • Life revolved around plantations
    • Waterways = transportation
new england
New England
  • Clean Water, Cool Temperatures
  • Added 10 yrs to life
  • Migrated as families
    • Early marriages
    • Birth Rate increased
      • 10 pregnancies / 8 children
  • Parents / Grandparents
slide17
Cont.
  • Women gave up property when married
  • Lawmakers = protect / defend marriages
    • Divorce rare
  • Midwifery
    • Childbirth
    • Female monopoly
new england towns
New England Towns
  • 50 plus = schools
  • Massachusetts
    • Harvard – 1636
  • Virginians
    • William and Mary – 1693
  • Congregational Church Government
  • Tight knit society
  • Puritans = unity of purpose
    • Moral health
  • Distribution of land in hands of proprietors
    • Woodlot, tract (crops), pasture
slide19
Cont.
  • Jeremiad
    • Doom-saying
    • Scolded parishioners
    • Decline in conversions
  • Half Way Covenant - 1662
    • Admit to baptism – not full communion
  • Doors to Puritan church swung open
slide20
Cont.
  • Salem Witch Trials – 1692
    • Massachusetts
    • Witch hunt
    • 20 individuals
    • Gossip
      • Superstitions
    • Property owning

Widows

  • Ended in 1693
new england1
New England
  • Less ethically mixed
  • Stony soil /Extreme weather
  • Expert shipbuilders / commerce
  • Codfish
    • “fishy goldmines of New England”
  • Huge impact on the rest of the nation
early settlers
Early settlers
  • Most were farmers
    • Sun up to sun down
  • Women managed the home (plantation)
  • Distinction amongst classes
    • Leisler’s Rebellion – 1689
      • Lordly landowners against Merchants
        • Gentlemen / dividing class
        • Laws passed to keep them in their place
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