The troubled twenties society and culture
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The Troubled ‘Twenties Society and Culture. Upper class lives. Landlords and Tenants. Landlords and Tenants. Impoverished tenants. Landlords and Tenants. Urban poor. Urban poor. Working class protest. Middle classes as buffer?. Modernizing owner- cultivators in countryside.

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The Troubled ‘Twenties Society and Culture

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The Troubled ‘TwentiesSociety and Culture


  • Upper

  • class lives

Landlords and Tenants


Landlords and Tenants


  • Impoverished tenants

Landlords and Tenants


Urban poor


Urban poor


Working class protest


Middle classes as buffer?

  • Modernizing

  • owner-

  • cultivators

  • in countryside


The “old” middle classes

Wholesalers and retailers,

41% of employed in Tokyo,

280,000/

700,000


New middle class: at work

  • New “salaried”

  • middle class,

  • and new lifeways


Middle class women at work


New middle class: at play


New Middle Class: At School?


New middle class: at the department store

  • New “salaried”

  • middle class,

  • and new lifeways

  • Mitsukoshi

  • Dept Store

  • Delivery service


Selling to the middle class

If you buy a Singer sewing machine, you can amortize it in just a few months

  • Modern as “rational” and “frugal”; as investment in future


Selling to the middle class

  • Modern as independent and liberated:

  • “the modern woman can stand

  • proudly on her own, if she has to”


Selling to the middle class

  • New “salaried”

  • middle class,

  • and new lifeways


The “modern girl”


Albert Rabenbauer, Die Reklame (1929):Cover


Jupp Wiertz, Vogue, for F. Wolff & Sohn, Germany (1929)


Anxiety over the “modern girl” at play


Anxiety over the modern girl at work

  • In factories: new militancy


Anxiety over the modern girl at work

  • In factories: new militancy


Conclusions

  • Persistent divisions: landlord-tenant, bosses and workers

  • An emerging middle, as stabilizer?

  • Excitement and anxiety

    • Delight of the new, the Western, fashion and freedom for women

    • Anxiety at these same trends; a heightened fear of social disorder and cultural change


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