The nervous system
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The Nervous System. Anatomy and Physiology and Pathological Conditions. Video on Nervous System. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/anatomyvideos/000089.htm. Watching the Brain “light up”.

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The Nervous System

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The Nervous System

Anatomy and Physiology and

Pathological Conditions


Video on Nervous System

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/anatomyvideos/000089.htm


Watching the Brain “light up”

Neurologists and scientists who specialize in studying the brain can take pictures of the brain of a person who is involved in various activities.


  • This is called . . .

“brain mapping.”

It is significant because it shows what part of the brain is active during certain activities or thought processes.


Brain Components Video:

  • http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/anatomyvideos/000016.htm


The Spinal Cord

  • 31 pairs of nerves extending out from spinal cord

  • Correspond to nerve pathways that connect to various organs/systems


Concept Review and Comprehension Check

What are the two parts of the Nervous System called?

(1) The Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

(2) The Central Nervous System and the Lateral Nervous System

(3) The BNS and the PONS


  • What is the largest part of the human brain called?

  • Cerebellum

  • Diencephalon

  • Cerebrum


  • Identify one function that the brain stem regulates:

  • Heart muscle tone

  • Heart beat

  • digestion


  • Doctor who specializes in treating diseases of the nervous system.

  • Pathophysiologist

  • Neurologist

  • Neurology


  • These nerves are sensory nerves. They carry impulses from the body to the CNS.

  • Neurons

  • Efferent nerves

  • Afferent nerves


  • These nerves are motor nerves. They carry messages from the CNS to the muscles and glands of the body.

  • Efferent nerves

  • Nervous wreck

  • Afferent nerves


  • Functional nerve cells.

  • Sympathetic nerves

  • Afferent nerves

  • Neurons


  • Special connective tissue-type cells that do not conduct impulses; rather, these cells protect the nervous system by engulfing and digesting any unwanted substances.

  • Neurotransmitters

  • neuroglia

  • neurons


  • Astrocytes (neuroglial cells) plus capillary walls form this protective device for the brain:

  • Blood-brain barrier

  • CSF

  • CNS


  • Three layers of protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. (Individual layers are: Dura Mater, Arachnoid Space, Pia Mater)

  • Blood-brain barrier

  • Meninges

  • Hydrocephalus


  • The Brain is divided into two relatively equal hemispheres by:

  • Longitudinal Fissure

  • Sulci

  • Gyri


  • Consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.

  • diencephalon

  • Brain stem

  • Pineal body


Word Elements

Relating to the Nervous System


-algesia

-algia

Encephal/o

-esthesia

-kinesia

-lepsy

Myel/o

Neur/o

-paresis

-phasia

-plegia

narc/o

Sensitivity to pain

Pain

Brain

Sensation or feeling

Movement

Attack

Spinal cord or bone marrow

Nerve

Partial paralysis

Speech

Paralysis

sleep


The Nervous System

Pathological Conditions


Categories of Pathological Conditions

Neurologists and Neurosurgeons

deal with many different kinds of problems

involving the brain and spinal cord.


Categories of Pathological Conditions

  • Most brain and spinal cord disorders are classified into one of the following categories:

  • Congenital disorders

  • Degenerative, functional and seizure disorders

  • Infectious disorders

  • Intracranial tumors

  • Traumatic disorders

  • Vascular disorders

  • Peripheral nerve disorders

  • Disk disorders


Disk Disorder

Example:

Degenerative disk

What is it? Deterioration of the intervertebral disk, usually due to constant motion and wearing on the disk.


Infectious Disorder

Example: Shingles (Herpes Zoster”

What is it? An acute viral infection involving inflammation of the spinal or cranial nerves that produces a painful skin rash.


Intracranial tumors (primary)

Example: Glioblastoma

Breakdown of word:

Gli/o- gluey substance

blast= embryonic stage

-oma= tumor

What is it? A malignant (cancerous) brain tumor that starts in the glial cells of the brain.


Congenital Disorder

Example: Anencephaly

Breakdown of word:

an- without, not

Encephal/0= brain

-y = (noun ending)

Characterized by the absence of the brain and spinal cord at birth.


Traumatic Disorder

Example:

Cerebral Concussion

What is it? A brief interruption of brain function caused by blunt trauma to the head.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/anatomyvideos/000034.htm


Vascular Disorder

Example:Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)

What is it? Death of part of the brain due to decreased blood flow to that area. Also known as “stroke.”

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/anatomyvideos/000123.htm


Peripheral Disorder

Example: Carpal tunnel syndrome

What is it? A pinched or compressed nerve in the carpal tunnel passage of the wrist.


Seizure Disorder

Example: Epilepsy

Breakdown of word:

Epi- over, upon

-lepsy= seizure, attack

What is it? A syndrome of recurring episodes of excessive irregular activity in the central nervous system.


Concept Review and Comprehension Check

What does the word Congenital mean?

(1) From birth

(2) A degenerative disorder

(3) A brief interruption of consciousness


  • What is the best meaning of “vascular disorder”?

  • Pain in the wrist

  • Problems that arise in the cerebral cortex

  • Problems that arise in the blood vessels to the brain


  • Which is an example of a virus affecting the nervous system?

  • Carpal tunnel syndrome

  • Shingles (Herpes zoster)

  • glioblastoma


  • What can cause a Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)?

  • Low blood sugar

  • A car accident

  • Decreased blood flow to part of the brain


The Nervous System

Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments

And Procedures


  • Visualization of the cerebral vascular system via X-ray.

  • Brain scan

  • Cerebral angiography

  • CT scan of the brain


  • Surgical procedure involving cutting into the skull.

  • Chordotomy

  • Cisternal puncture

  • craniotomy


  • Using ultrasound to analyze the internal structures of the brain.

  • echoencephalography

  • EEG

  • Brain scan


  • Surgical removal of the bony arches from one or more of the vertebrae to relieve pressure on the spinal cord.

  • chordotomy

  • laminectomy

  • Lumbar puncture


  • A physical balance test to check a person’s equilibrium while his/her eyes are closed.

  • Babinski’s test

  • sympathectomy

  • Romberg test


Pronunciation Practice

  • Meninges

  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

  • Cerebellum

  • Anencephaly

  • Cerebrovascular Accident

  • Encephalitis

  • Hydrocephalus

  • Multiple Sclerosis

  • Meningitis

  • Narcolepsy

  • Herpes Zoster

  • Paraplegia

  • Babinski’s reflex

  • Electromyography

  • Laminectomy


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