Inflation deflation
Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 33

Inflation & Deflation PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 220 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Inflation & Deflation. Recap & move forward…. 1. Recap. What was the more recent ‘FIVE’ causes of UK’s rise in inflation last month?. 2. Recap. What was the more recent ‘FIVE’ causes of UK’s rise in inflation last month? F= Fuel I = Imports create higher costs V = VAT E= exchange rates.

Download Presentation

Inflation & Deflation

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Inflation & Deflation

  • Recap & move forward…

1


Recap

  • What was the more recent ‘FIVE’ causes of UK’s rise in inflation last month?

2


Recap

  • What was the more recent ‘FIVE’ causes of UK’s rise in inflation last month?

  • F= Fuel

  • I = Imports create higher costs

  • V = VAT

  • E= exchange rates

3


Recap

  • In theory – what are the 2 different types of inflation?

    • Demand pull inflation

    • Cost push inflation

4


Recap

  • Can you draw me a demand pull inflation diagram (show SR & LR AS)

5


DEMAND PULL INFLATION

In the LR, workers are not willing to sacrifice Leisure time for more overtime…. But still have high wage expectations….

demand pull inflation

SRAS2

LRAS

Price Level

SRAS

AD1

AD

0

Y2

Y1

Real National Output

6


Recap

  • Can you draw me a cost push inflation diagram (show SR & LR AS)

7


Draw an Classical AD/AS diagram

LRAS

SRAS2

Price Level

SRAS1

AD

0

Y2

Y1

Real National Output

8


Deflation

  • Is it good or bad?

9


Deflation

  • Deflation is a sustained fall in the general price level

  • A sustained period of negative inflation

  • The internal value of money rises

10


Deflation for some products

11


What effects do you think this had on the economy?

What’s the

start &

end points?

Describe the changes in the data provided.

What’s the

trend?

12


The diagrams

  • – demand side cause of deflation

13


DEMAND PULL Deflation…

LRAS

Price Level

SRAS

AD

AD1

0

Y2

Y1

Real National Output

14


Demand side causes of Deflation

  • A Large (adverse) Fall in AD

  • Exogenous shocks to the economy

  • A global recession leading to a fall in exports and investment

    • A rise in the exchange rate (leading to lower exports and cheaper imports)

    • Declines in domestic and international asset prices

  • Deliberate attempts by macroeconomic policy to reduce AD through tightening of fiscal and/or monetary policy

15


Multi choice…

16


Demand-pull inflation is most likely to be caused by

  • A total spending exceeding productive capacity.

  • B an increase in output.

  • C a rise in raw material prices.

  • D a rise in interest rates.

17


An economy is most likely to be in the boom phase of the trade cycle when there is a rise in

  • A business pessimism.

  • B the savings ratio.

  • C spare capacity.

  • D the demand for imports.

18


Real incomes rise whenever

  • A nominal incomes rise.

  • B the price level rises by more than nominal incomes.

  • C nominal incomes rise by more than the price level.

  • D the rate of inflation slows down.

19


Inflation article

  • Read

  • use highlighters to select key positive & negative issues

20


What’s so BAD about inflation?

  • “RPI is an aggregate figure” – what does this mean?

  • Why are interest rates on mortgages such an important monetary tool to control inflation?

  • What is the difference between nominal and real prices?

  • The article identifies 4 problems of inflation. What are they?

21


The diagrams

  • – supply side cause of deflation

22


SR Cost ‘push’ deflation

LRAS

Price Level

SRAS1

SRAS2

AD

0

Y2

Y1

Real National Output

23


LR Cost ‘push’ deflation

LRAS

LRAS

Price Level

SRAS1

AD

0

Y1

Real National Output

Y2

24


Supply side causes of deflation

  • An Increase in Long Run Aggregate Supply

  • The supply potential of the economy has been boosted by a series of beneficial shocks such as

  • Impact of rapid technological advances

    • Reductions in the international prices of commodities and capital goods

    • Higher productivity which drives down unit cost of production

  • Exploitation of economies of scale leading to lower LRAC

    • Excess supply in some industries due to over-investment in new capital machinery i.e. deflation results from a persistent demand deficit over existing and potential productive capacity.

25


Deflation – good and bad points!

Impact on Households?

Consumers?

Employees?

Businesses?

26


Consequences of Deflation

  • Holding back on spending:

  • Consumers may opt to postpone demand if they expect prices to fall further in the future

  • Debts increase: The real value of debt rises when the general price level is falling and a higher real debt mountain can be a drag on confidence

    • Mortgage payers on fixed mortgage interest rates will see the real cost of servicing their debt increase

  • The real cost of borrowing increases: Real interest rates will rise if nominal rates of interest do not fall in line with prices

  • Lower profit margins: This can lead to higher unemployment as firms seek to reduce their costs.

  • Confidence and saving: Falling asset prices such as price deflation in the housing market hit personal sector wealth and confidence –leading to further declines in AD. Higher savings can lead to the paradox of thrift

27


Past paper practice

  • I would suspect that your exam paper will be about recessionary issues – one being Deflation!

28


29


QUESTIONS

  • Explain what is meant by the term “deflation”. (4 marks)

  • With reference to Extract 1, explain the effect on GDP of the change in asset prices in 1990. (8 marks)

  • Explain why “deflation needn’t be all bad”? (line 28, extract 2) (8 marks)

  • With reference to the extracts, examine the problems associated with a long period of deflation. (12 marks)

  • Assess the relative effectiveness of using monetary and fiscal policy to move the economy out of a period of deflation.(12 marks)

  • How might the continuing deflation in Japan affect the global economy? (6 marks)

30


Or….

31


January 2006 - inflation

32


The questions

33


  • Login