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TOPIC #6: The Building of the Berlin Wall - 1961 REVIEW / KD: 1. Page 407. Video - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwQsTzGkbiY "Walled In!" Germany\'s inner border – thanks Ali Farwi 2. Lesson was learned in Eastern Europe after the Hungarian Uprising:

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TOPIC #6:The Building of the Berlin Wall - 1961

REVIEW / KD:

1. Page 407. Video - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwQsTzGkbiY

"Walled In!" Germany\'s inner border – thanks Ali Farwi

2. Lesson was learned in Eastern Europe after the Hungarian Uprising:

That it was impossible to fight the Communists

3. Eastern Europeans want to leave:

Political reasons- some wished to leave Eastern Europe b/c they hated the Communists

Economic reasons- many more wished to leave b/c standards of living in Eastern Europe fell further and further behind the West, the attraction of going to live in a capitalist state was very great.

4. West Berlin in the 1950s:

Prize exhibits of capitalist West Germany – shops full of goods, great freedom, great wealth and great variety.

This had been deliberately done by the Western powers. They had poured massive investment into Berlin

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TOPIC #6:The Building of the Berlin Wall - 1961

Background:

In the 1950s East Germans were still able to travel freelyinto West Berlin and into West Germany.

It was very tempting to leave East Germany:

Harsh communist regimeand its hard-line leader, Walter Ulbricht.

By the late 1950s thousands were defecting (leaving).

Often highly skilled workers or well-qualified managers.

Between the years 1954 -1960, East Germany suffered a "brain drain". During that period, 4,600 doctors, 15,885 teachers, 738 university teachers, 15,536 engineers and technicians moved from East to West Germany.http://www.berlinermauer.se/BerlinWall/bygg.htm

The Communist government could not afford to lose these high-quality people - more importantly, from Khrushchev’s point of view, fleeing Communist rule for a better life under capitalism undermined Communism generally.

Khrushchev and the Communists worried that the USA and the West used Berlin as a “listening post”to spy on the East.

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27

SOURCE

Number of people crossing from East to West Germany, 1950–64.

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TOPIC #6:The Building of the Berlin Wall - 1961

Background:

There was tension between the USA and the USSR because of Cuba and the U2 incident over the USSR in May, 1960 (Gary Powers).

In 1961 the USA had a new President, the young and inexperienced JFK. Khrushchev thought he could bully Kennedy (Bay of Pigs, April 1961) and chose to pick a fight over Berlin.

He insisted that Kennedy withdraw US troops but JFK refused.

At two o’clock in the morning on Sunday 13 August 1961, East German soldiers erected a barbed-wire barrier along the entire frontier between East and West Berlin, ending all free movement from East to West. It was quickly replaced by a concrete wall.

All the crossing points from East to West Berlin were sealed, except for one. This became known as Checkpoint Charlie.

Families were divided. Border guards had orders to shoot people trying to defect. Hundreds were killed over the next three decades.

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TOPIC #6:The Building of the Berlin Wall - 1961

Reaction:

On 27 October 1961 Soviet tanks pulled up to Checkpoint Charlie and refused to allow any further access to the East.

Khrushchev ordered Ulbricht to avoid any actions that would increase tension. Kennedy said, ‘It’s not a very nice solution, but a wall is a hell of a lot better than a war.’

Built in response to JFK’s refusal to hand over West Berlin to Communist control.

The wall became the symbol of division - Communist East and democratic West.

The Communists presented the wall as a protective shell around East Berlin.

The West presented it as a prison wall.

Key PP Questions:

68. Describe the effects of building the Berlin Wall on the people of Berlin. (5)

69. Why was the Berlin Wall built? (7)

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68. Describe the effects of building the Berlin Wall on the people of Berlin. (5)

MAIN PART OF THE ANSWER:

The wall acted as a physical barrier between east and west.

Families were divided. Border guards had orders to shoot people trying to defect. Hundreds were killed

over the next three decades.

It cut all communications between the sides and with Checkpoint Charlie being the only crossing point.

It stopped the movement of Germans and refugees.

BACKGROUND:

By the late 1950s thousands were defecting (leaving).

Often highly skilled workers or well-qualified managers.

Between the years 1954 -1960, East Germany suffered a "brain drain". During that period, 4,600 doctors,

15,885 teachers, 738 university teachers, 15,536 engineers and technicians moved from East to W. Ger.

The Communist government could not afford to lose these high-quality people - more importantly, from

Khrushchev’s point of view, fleeing Communist rule for a better life under capitalism undermined

Communism generally.

Khrushchev and the Communists worried that the USA and the West used Berlin as a “listening post” to

spy on the East.

There was tension between the USA and the USSR because of Cuba and the U2 incident over the USSR

in May, 1960 (Gary Powers).

In 1961 the USA had a new President, the young and inexperienced JFK. Khrushchev thought he could

bully Kennedy (Bay of Pigs, April 1961) and chose to pick a fight over Berlin.

He insisted that Kennedy withdraw US troops but JFK refused- Built in response to JFK’s refusal to hand over West Berlin to Communist control.

At two o’clock in the morning on Sunday 13 August 1961, East German soldiers erected a barbed-wire

barrier along the entire frontier between East and West Berlin, ending all free movement from East to

West. It was quickly replaced by a concrete wall. All the crossing points from East to West Berlin were

sealed, except for one. This became known as Checkpoint Charlie.

slide7

DATE:September 24, 2012

TOPIC #6:Berlin Wall – 1961 and Intro to Czechoslovakia - 1968

REVIEW: PPQ 68

Describe the effects of building the Berlin Wall on the people of Berlin. (5)

OBJECTIVES:

5. Describe how the USSR reacted to opposition in 1956 and 1968.

6. Compare and contrast the events in Hungary and in Czechoslovakia.

KD INTRO:

1. Read page 404.

2. Who was Leonid Brezhnev?

3. Why was there opposition in Czechoslovakia?

4. What was Alexander Dubček calling for in Czechoslovakia by 1968?

slide8

DATE:September 27, 2012

TOPIC #6:Czechoslovakia and the Prague Spring of 1968

OBJECTIVES:

5. Describe how the USSR reacted to opposition in 1956 and 1968.

6. Compare and contrast the events in Hungary and in Czechoslovakia.

FURTHER KD:

5. Describe how the “Prague Spring” started in 1968.

6. Read sources 19 and 21 on page 405.

Compare and contrast them (what’s similar and what’s different).

7. What were the Soviet concerns / how did they react?

The Soviet Union was very suspicious of the changes.

Czechoslovakia was one of the most important countries in the Warsaw Pact (centrally placed with strong industry).

The Soviets were worried that the new ideas in Czechoslovakia might spread to other countries in eastern Europe.

Brezhnev came under pressure from the East German leader, Walter Ulbricht, and the Polish leader, Gomulka, to restrain Czechoslovakia.

slide9

TOPIC #6:Czechoslovakia and the Prague Spring of 1968

5. Describe how the “Prague Spring” started in 1968.

The Czech opposition was led by intellectuals who felt that the Communists had failed to lead the country forward.

As censorship had been eased, attacks against the Communist leadership flourished (grew), pointing out how corrupt and useless they were.

Communist government ministers were ‘grilled’ on live television and radio about how they were running the country and about events before 1968.

New ideas seemed to be appearing everywhere (political liberalisation – media, speech and travel).

Alexander Dubček

http://images.google.com/images?q=prague%20spring

slide10

TOPIC #6:Soviet Reaction to the Prague Spring of 1968

KD:

8. Give three examples of how the Soviets reacted to Czechoslovakia

before the invasion on August 20, 1968. p. 404 - 405

9. Who put pressure on Brezhnev to take action against Czechoslovakia?

Why? p. 404 - 405

10. What were the essentials of the Brezhnev Doctrine? p. 406

11. Compare and contrast the Hungarian Uprising and the Prague Spring.

12. PPQ 66.Why did the USSR invade Czechoslovakia in 1968? (7)

slide11

KD Answers:

8. Soviet reaction: See next slides.

9. Pressure on Brezhnev:

from the East German leader, Walter Ulbricht, and the Polish leader, Gomulka, to restrain Czechoslovakia.

Did not want ideas of liberalisation, press freedom and criticism of Communist policies to spread

10. What were the essentials of the Brezhnev Doctrine? p. 406

a one-party system

to remain a member of the Warsaw Pact

slide12

TOPIC #6:Czechoslovakia and the Prague Spring of 1968

8. Soviet Reaction: Reasons for Invasion

The USSR tried various methods in response.

It argued with Dubček and tried to slow him down.

Soviet, Polish and East German troops performed very public training exercises on the Czech border.

It thought about imposing economic sanctions (cancelling wheat exports to Czechoslovakia) but didn’t because it thought that the Czechs would ask for help from the West.

In July the USSR had a summit conference with the Czechs. Dubček agreed not to allow a new Social Democratic Party.

Early in August, Warsaw Pact members met and signed the Bratislava Declaration. They agreed to defend Communist ideas. The Soviet Union expressed its intention to intervene in a Warsaw Pact country if a pluralist system of several political parties was ever established. The conference produced a declaration calling on Czechoslovakia to maintain political stability.

Ultimately the Soviets enforced the Brezhnev Doctrine - one party and secure membership in Warsaw Pact.

slide13

TOPIC #6:Czechoslovakia and the Prague Spring of 1968

8. Soviet Reaction:

On 20 August 1968, to the stunned amazement of the Czechs and the outside world, Soviet tanks and Warsaw Pact Allies moved into Czechoslovakia.

There was little violent resistance, although many Czechs refused to co-operate with the Soviet troops.

Dubček was removed from power.

Brezhnev was very worried that the new ideas coming out of Czechoslovakia would spread.

slide14

KD Answers:

9. Compare and contrast the Hungarian Uprising and Prague.

Compare:

Soviet military intervention

Discontent with Soviet control – both economically and politically

Neither received help from the West.

Contrast:

Hungary planned to leave the Warsaw Pact but Czechoslovakia didn’t.

The Soviets seemed to be more patient with Czechoslovakia before invading but acted aggressively and immediately in Hungary.

Nagy was executed and Dubček demoted.

Hungarians resisted (30,000 dead) but the Czechs didn’t resist.

Czechs wanted freedom of speech and additional political parties.

slide15

TOPIC #6:Czechoslovakia and the Prague Spring of 1968

Aftermath:

Brezhnev Doctrine (September 1968) essentials of communism:

• a one-party system

• to remain a member of the Warsaw Pact

“When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of

some socialist country towards capitalism, it becomes not only a problem of

the country concerned, but a common problem and concern of all socialist

countries."

Unlike Nagy in Hungary, Dubček was not executed.

Dubček was gradually downgraded (ambassador to Turkey, then expelled from the Communist Party and photographs showing him as leader were ‘censored’).

Czechoslovakia’s mood had been one of optimism. After, it was despair.

Czechoslovakia became resentful of the Soviet connection, and other communists alienated (China).

Ideas that could have reformed Communism were silenced.

20 years later, Gorbachev, the leader of the USSR, questioned the invasion himself.

slide16

DATE:September 30, 2012

TOPIC #6:Soviet Reaction to the Prague Spring of 1968

REVIEW:

PPQ 66.Why did the USSR invade Czechoslovakia in 1968? (7)

QUIZ REVIEW:

1. Describe the Prague Spring. (5)

2. Compare and contrast the Hungarian Uprising and the Prague

Spring. (7)

3. What were the essentials of the Brezhnev Doctrine? (2)

HW: Read pages 410 and 411.

1. What does Détente mean?

2. Why did the Cold War thaw in the 1970s? Write bullet point answers (7)

3. Why did the Cold War freeze again in the 1980s? Write bullet point answers (7)

slide17

PPQ 66. Why did the USSR invade Czechoslovakia in 1968? (7)

    • The Soviet Union was very suspicious of the changes. The pace of reforms was too fast and

liberal.

    • As censorship had been eased, attacks against the Communist leadership flourished (grew),

pointing out how corrupt and useless they were.

    • Communist government ministers were ‘grilled’ on live television and radio about how they

were running the country and about events before 1968.

    • Czechoslovakia was one of the most important countries in the Warsaw Pact (centrally

placed next to Germany with strong industry and resources that the USSR relied on).

    • The Soviets were worried that the new ideas in Czechoslovakia might spread to other

countries in Eastern Europe (Domino Effect).

    • There were also concerns about a new political party (Social Democratic Party) would rival

the Communists and undermine Communist control.

    • The Soviets were also worried that the stability of the Warsaw Pact was at risk.
    • Brezhnev came under pressure from the East German leader, Walter Ulbricht, and the

Polish leader, Gomulka, to restrain Czechoslovakia. He wanted to show affirm hand and

control unfolding events.

    • The USSR worried that Czechoslovakia might turn to the West for help, both economically

and politically.

    • On 20 August 1968, to the stunned amazement of the Czechs and the outside world,

Soviet tanks and Warsaw Pact Allies moved into Czechoslovakia.

  • The Soviets were prepared for a violent response but there was little resistance. Many

Czechs, however, refused to co-operate with the Soviet troops.

  • Ultimately the Soviets enforced the Brezhnev Doctrine - one party and secure membership

in Warsaw Pact.

slide18

Helsinki conference, August 1975.

  • All countries recognised the borders set out after the Second World

War, including the division of Germany. They agreed to respect

human rights – e.g. freedom of speech, freedom to move from one

country to another.

(Does that remind you of the Locarno Treaties of 1925? – p. 240)

KD ANSWERS:

2. Cold War thaw in the 1970s: (7)

There were a number of factors that led to a thaw in

relations between the USA and USSR.

High hand shake!

  • American astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts met up and shook

hands in space. This was quite literally the high point of détente.

(What does this prove or demonstrate / why important?)

slide19

Revolution in Iran:

The Iranian revolution changed the balance of power in the Middle

East and increased tension between the superpowers, who were

worried about how each other would react.

Civil wars in Nicaragua, El Salvador and in Angola:

Communist rebels (supported by Cuban and Soviet money and

expertise) tried to overthrow the governments of these states in South

America and Africa. The USA funded the governments against the

rebels. In Angola, the USA and the USSR helped to fund a long-running

civil war.

KD ANSWERS:

3. Why did the Cold War freeze again in the 1980s? (7)

After a decade of détente, the distrust and hostility between the USA and USSR returned and witnessed another freeze in the Cold War in the 1980s.

Human rights:

Jimmy Carter (US President, 1977–81) openly criticised the USSR’s

suppression of dissidents – people who spoke out against the

government in both the USSR and eastern Europe.

slide20

New nuclear weapons:

In 1977 the USSR began replacing out-of-date missiles in eastern

Europe with new SS-20 nuclear missiles. In response, President Carter

allowed the US military to develop the Cruise missile. By 1979 the USA

had stationed Pershing missiles in western Europe as an answer to the

SS-20s.

Collapse of SALT 2:

The main terms of the SALT 2 agreement had been set out as early as

1974. It was not until June 1979 that SALT 2 was finally signed. By

that time, relations between the USA and the USSR had deteriorated

so much that the US Congress refused to ratify SALT 2.

Afghanistan

In 1979 the pro-Soviet regime in Afghanistan was under serious threat

from its Muslim opponents, the Mujahideen. To protect the regime,

Soviet forces invaded. Western powers were alarmed and the USA

secretly began to send money, arms and equipment to Pakistan for the

Mujahideen. Portrayed in Charlie Wilson’s War

slide21

The Moscow and Los Angeles Olympics

In protest at Soviet involvement in the Afghan War, the USA boycotted

the 1980 Olympic games held in Moscow. In retaliation, the USSR and

eastern European teams boycotted the Los Angeles Olympics held four

years later.

Ronald Reagan:

In 1980, the USA elected Ronald Reagan as President.

Reagan made no secret of his dislike of Communism and the USSR,

calling it the Evil Empire. He supported anti-Communist forces in

Afghanistan and Nicaragua.

Reagan was helped by the fact that many of Europe’s leaders at this

time (including Britain’s Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher) supported

his tough line against the USSR.

His boldest plan was to escalate the arms race in order to end it. He

increased US defense spending by $32.6 billion.

slide22

DATE:October 1 - 4, 2012

TOPIC #6: Cold War and the 1970s - Intro to Poland and Solidarity

OBJECTIVES:

9. Explain what happened to Cold War tensions in the 1970s and 1980s.

10. Describe the significance of ‘Solidarity’ in Poland for the

decline of Soviet influence in Eastern Europe?

11. Measure how far was Gorbachev was responsible for the collapse of

Soviet control over Eastern Europe?

KD:

1. What was Solidarity? p. 412

2. How were protests in Poland different from those in Hungary and

Czechoslovakia? p. 412

3. What complaints did the Polish have during the 1970s? p. 412

4. Describe how Solidarity grew in the summer of 1980. p. 412

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