Players in Coastal Hazard Management
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Players in Coastal Hazard Management. Government Federal State Local Regional Private Landowners and Investors Non-Government Organizations. Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management Coastal Hazards Management Course. Slide 26.1. Land Ownership: The Bundle of Sticks.

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Players in coastal hazard management

Players in Coastal Hazard Management

  • Government

    • Federal

    • State

    • Local

    • Regional

  • Private Landowners and Investors

  • Non-Government Organizations

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.1


Players in coastal hazard management

Land Ownership: The Bundle of Sticks

  • Rights

  • Privileges

  • Restrictions

  • Duties

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.2


Players in coastal hazard management

Rights of Ownership

  • The right of possession

  • The right to control

  • The right of enjoyment

  • The right of disposition

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.3


Players in coastal hazard management

Limits on Ownership

  • Common law restrictions on property uses

  • The police power

  • Eminent domain

  • Property taxation

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.4


Players in coastal hazard management

Factors in Coastal Development Decisions

  • Demand

  • Risk

  • Hazards

  • Regulation

  • Infrastructure

  • Time Value of Money

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.5


Players in coastal hazard management

Ways to Affect Private Sector Development Decisions

  • Public information programs

  • Control infrastructure extensions into hazardous areas

  • Policies that require hazard mitigation

  • Impact fees for services in hazardous areas

  • Density bonuses for projects outside

  • Low-cost loans for mitigation

  • Subsidies for relocation out of hazardous areas

  • Streamlined permitting in hazard-free areas

  • Differential loan rates for hazard areas

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.6


Players in coastal hazard management

Non-Governmental Organizations

  • Natural Resources Defense Council

  • Sierra Club

  • Center for Marine Conservation

  • other environmental and public interest groups

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.7


Players in coastal hazard management

Non-Governmental Organizations:

Land Trusts

  • The Nature Conservancy

  • Local groups

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.8


Players in coastal hazard management

Non-Governmental Organizations:

Private Interest Groups

  • Investment organizations

  • Energy organizations

  • Development organizations

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.9


Players in coastal hazard management

Non-Governmental Organizations:

Professional Associations

  • floodplain managers

  • emergency managers

  • planners/architects

  • engineers

  • builders

  • bankers/insurers

  • landscapers

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.10


Players in coastal hazard management

Government Coalitions

  • chambers of commerce

  • leagues of municipalities

  • county government leagues

  • regional councils of government

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.11


Players in coastal hazard management

Third Sector Capabilities

  • mobilize public and political support

  • shape public opinion

  • attract diverse funding

  • leverage scarce resources

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.12


Players in coastal hazard management

Approaches to Government Regulation

of Coastal Development

  • Withhold government subsidies for development

  • Land use planning

  • Restrict/prohibit structures

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.13


Players in coastal hazard management

Ad Hoc Federal Response to Early Disasters

  • New Madrid, Missouri Earthquakes of 1811-1812

  • Chicago Fire of 1873

  • Johnstown, Pennsylvania Dam Break in 1889

  • Galveston Hurricane of 1900

  • San Francisco Earthquake and Fire of 1906

  • Miami Hurricane of 1926

  • Lower Mississippi Flood of 1927

  • New England Hurricane of 1938

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.14


Players in coastal hazard management

Federal Disaster Response in the 1930s

  • Disaster loans made available for public facilities

  • Flood Control Act of 1934: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

  • Zoning becomes judicially accepted, but is not used to limit building in hazard areas

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.15


Players in coastal hazard management

Federal Disaster Response in the 1950s

  • The Cold War presents the principal disaster risk

  • More ad hoc disaster legislation for natural disasters

    • Hurricane Hazel, 1954

    • Hurricane Diana, 1955

    • Hurricane Audrey, 1957

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.16


Players in coastal hazard management

Federal Disaster Response in the 1960s

  • Office of Emergency Preparedness, 1961

  • Natural Disasters:

    • Ash Wednesday Storm

    • Prince William Sound earthquake/tsunami

    • Hurricane Betsy

    • Hurricane Camille

  • National Flood Insurance Program enacted, 1968

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.17


Players in coastal hazard management

Federal Disaster Response in the 1970s

  • 100+ federal agencies with responsibility for risk and disasters

  • Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.18


Players in coastal hazard management

Federal Disaster Response during the 1980s

and 1990s

  • The role of the federal government/FEMA is called into question.

  • The emergency management system fails to respond adequately to major disasters:

    • Hurricane Hugo, 1989

    • Loma Prieta earthquake, 1989

    • Hurricane Andrew, 1992

    • Hurricane Iniki, 1992

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.19


Players in coastal hazard management

A Change in Focus for Post-Disaster Recovery

  • James Lee Witt named Director of FEMA

  • FEMA responds successfully to Midwest Floods of 1993

  • Largest voluntary buyout and relocation program moves people and property out of the floodplain

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.20


Players in coastal hazard management

Federal Disaster Response in the late 1990s

  • Directorship of FEMA elevated to cabinet level

  • FEMA increases emphasis on disaster mitigation

  • FEMA encourages disaster-resistant communities

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.21


Players in coastal hazard management

Post September 11th

  • Department of Homeland Security created

  • FEMA housed in the Emergency Preparedness and Response Directorate

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.22


Players in coastal hazard management

Federal Disaster Assistance: A Moral Hazard?

  • The availability of federal disaster assistance, flood insurance and other benefits inadvertently contributes to a false sense of security and removes incentives to reduce personal and local hazards.

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.23


Players in coastal hazard management

State Regulatory Tools for Hazard Areas

  • Direct regulation of environmentally sensitive areas

  • Coastal setbacks

  • Limit public provision of infrastructure

  • Mandatory building codes

  • Mandate local planning

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.24


Players in coastal hazard management

Local Land Use Management Tools

  • comprehensive land use plans

  • zoning/subdivision ordinances

  • capital improvement programs

  • historic district regulations

  • land acquisition programs

  • targeted taxation assessments

  • impact fees

  • annexation programs

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.25


Players in coastal hazard management

Disaster Resilient Local Communities

  • Property tax base located in safe areas

  • Property built to withstand natural hazards

  • Economically secure

  • Financially stable

  • Sustainable

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.26


Players in coastal hazard management

Issues of Regional Concern

  • public policy

  • administration

  • resource management

  • pollution control

  • economic development

  • other social, political, or environmental concerns

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.27


Players in coastal hazard management

Forms of Regional Governance

  • regulatory (with or without enforcement powers)

  • administrative

  • advisory

  • voluntary councils/federations

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.28


Players in coastal hazard management

Elements of Success in Regional Governance

  • authority for implementation

  • fiscal autonomy

  • legal flexibility in interpreting mandates

  • professionalism among staff

  • clear goals

  • proper mix of political, organizational, and environmental conditions

Session Name: Players in Coastal Hazards Management

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 26.29


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