Ling212 second language acquisition
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LING212 Second Language Acquisition. Florencia Franceschina. Terminology. Second language acquisition Foreign language acquisition Acquisition of additional languages Bilingual language acquisition. L2 grammars. A.k.a. interlanguage grammars (ILGs) Example : L2 speaker on Botticelli.

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LING212 Second Language Acquisition

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LING212Second Language Acquisition

Florencia Franceschina


Terminology

  • Second language acquisition

  • Foreign language acquisition

  • Acquisition of additional languages

  • Bilingual language acquisition


L2 grammars

A.k.a. interlanguage grammars (ILGs)

Example: L2 speaker on Botticelli


Route of acquisition

U-shaped learning

Example: Myles et al. (1999)


Myles et al. (1999)

L1 English/L2 French

16 adolescents

Recorded 6 times over 2 years

Initially drilled in using ‘chunks’:

Quel âge as-tu?

Comment tu t’appelles?

Qu’est qu’il aime faire?

etc.


Myles et al. (1999)

Findings:

Three question types:

1. Qs formed from chunks they had been drilled on.

2. Novel questions lacking verbs

Où la piscine?

3. Novel questions with verbs


Q type

Sample

1

2

3

4

5

6

Chunk

143/186

77%

264/418

63%

47/111

42%

214/483

44%

261/622

42%

40/264

15%

V-less

41/186

22%

129/418

31%

53/111

48%

235/483

49%

287/622

46%

182/264

69%

With V

2/186

1%

25/418

6%

11/111

10%

34/483

7%

74/622

12%

42/264

16%

Myles et al. (1999)


Route of acquisition

Fixed stages of acquisition

Example: Pienemann (1998)


Pienemann (1998)

Stages of acquisition of word order in L2 German:

  • SVODie kinder spielen mim ball (the children play with the ball)

  • Adverb pre-posingDa kinder spielen (there children play)

  • Verb separationAller kinder muss die pause machen (all children must the pause make)

  • Verb second (V2)Dann hat sie wieder die knoch gebringt (then has she again the bone brought)

  • Verb final in subordinate clausesEr sagte dass er nach hause kommt (he said that he to home comes)


Rate of acquisition

Some learners are faster than others

Example 1: Snow and Hoefnagel-Hole (1978)

Example 2: Dulay and Burt (1974)


Snow and Hoefnagel-Hohle (1978)

L1 English / L2 Dutch

Immersion

Tasks: Pronunciation, auditory discrimination, morphology, sentence repetition, sentence translation, sentence judgement, story comprehension, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

Findings:

  • After 3 months’ residence: adults and adolescents outperformed children on tests

  • After 10 months’ residence: the children caught up


Dulay and Burt (1974)

L1 Chinese (Cantonese) / L2 English (replication of D&B, 73, L1 Spanish / L2 English children)

115 6-8 year-olds in the US

Task: BSM


Dulay and Burt (1974): Bilingual Syntax Measure


Dulay and Burt (1974): results


Variable attainment profile

  • Fossilization

  • High levels of individual variation

    Example 1: Franceschina (2001)

    Example 2: Johnson and Newport (1989)


Franceschina (2001)

L1 English, L1 Italian / L2 Spanish

Nearnatives

Task: Spontaneous speech production

Findings:

  • All learners were equally accurate (totally target-like) on number agreement

  • The Italian speakers were more accurate than the English speakers on gender agreement


Johnson and Newport (1989)

L1 Chinese, L1 Korean / L2 English

46 participants

AoA: between 3-39

Minimum residence in the US: 5 years

Task: GJT testing a range of grammatical properties


Johnson and Newport (1989) (1)


Johnson and Newport (1989) (2)


Summary

ILGs are:

  • Systematic (e.g., route, within L1 groups)

  • Variable (according to age of acquisition, L1, in terms of rate of acquisition and outcome)


What determines the variable L2 outcomes?

  • Learner-internal factors

    • Age (Singleton and Lengyel, 1995; Birdsong, 1999)

    • L1 (Odlin, 1989; Gass and Selinker, 1992)

    • Aptitude (Sawyer and Ranta, 2001)

    • Motivation (Dornyei and Schmidt, 2001)


What determines the variable L2 outcomes?

  • Learner-external factors

    • Type of input (Carroll, 2001; Norris and Ortega, 2000)

    • Type of interaction (Gass, 1997)


What determines the variable L2 outcomes?

Caveat: SLA researchers do not all agree on the exact role that the previously mentioned factors play in determining L2 outcomes.


References

Birdsong, D. (ed.) 1999: Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Carroll, S. E. 2001: Input and evidence. The raw material of SLA. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Dornyei, Z. and R. Schmidt. 2001: Motivation and second language acquisition. Manoa: University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Dulay, H. and M. Burt. 1974: Natural sequences in child second language acquisition. Language Learning 24, 37-53.

Franceschina, F. 2001: Where lies the difference between native and non-native grammars? Evidence from the L2A of Spanish, in S. Foster-Cohen and A. Nizegorodcew, eds. EUROSLA Yearbook 1. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Pp. 143-158.

Gass, S. M. 1997: Input, interaction and the second language learner. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Gass, S. M. and L. Selinker. (eds.) 1992: Language transfer in language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.


References

Myles, F., R. Mitchell and P. J. Hooper. 1999: Interrogative chunks in French L2: a basis for creative construction? Studies in Second Language Acquisition 21, 49-80.

Norris, J. and L. Ortega. 2000: Effectiveness of L2 instruction: a research synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis. Language Learning 50, 417-528.

Odlin, T. 1989: Language transfer: cross-linguistic influence in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pienemann, M. 1998a: Language processing and L2 development. Processability theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

---- 1998b: Developmental dynamics in L1 and L2 acquisition: Processability Theory and generative entrenchment. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 1, 1-20.

Sawyer, M. and L. Ranta. 2001: Aptitude, individual differences and instructional design, in P. Robinson, ed. Cognition and second language instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 319-353.

Singleton, D. M. and Z. Lengyel. (eds.) 1995: The age factor in second language acquisition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Snow, C. E. and M. Hoefnagel-Hohle. 1978: The critical period for language acquisition: evidence from second language learning. Child Development 49, 1114-1128.


Administrative

  • Reading: White (2003: chapter 1). You will find some study questions on the course website. You can also read chapter 2, which contains more advanced discussion.

  • Empirical study summary forms

  • Glossary cards

  • This term seminars will take place in weeks 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8 in Bowland B61


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