Chapter 11 membrane transport
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Chapter 11: Membrane transport. Know the terminology: Active transport, symport, antiport, exchanger, carrier, passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, ATPase, ion channel, ion pump, permease, selectivity filter, gating, membrane potential, electrogenic, electroneutral, ABC transporter .

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Chapter 11: Membrane transport

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Chapter 11 membrane transport

Chapter 11: Membrane transport

Know the terminology:

Active transport, symport, antiport, exchanger, carrier, passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, ATPase, ion channel, ion pump, permease, selectivity filter, gating, membrane potential, electrogenic, electroneutral, ABC transporter


Principles of membrane transport

Principles of membrane transport

(1) Membranes are barriers to movement of water-soluble molecules.


Principles of membrane transport1

Principles of membrane transport

(2) Two classes of transport (Fig 11-4)

-channels

-carriers (=transporters, carriers, exchangers)

(3) Type of transport distinguished based upon how energy is used (Fig 11-8)


Principles of membrane transport2

Principles of membrane transport

(4) Kinetics (flux in relation to concentration)


Passive and facilitated diffusion

Passive and facilitated diffusion

Net movements of molecules from one site from high concentration to low concentration is diffusion

Passive diffusion is unassisted

Its facilitated diffusion if a protein allows diffusion across a membrane barrier

Channels (with selective permeability) allow diffusion of ions down their concentration gradient

If molecules are charged, membrane potential is also an important force


Active transport

Active transport

Cells can use various forms of energy to drive transport against concentration or charge gradients

What kind of energy is used?

transport of some molecules fueled by the energy of ATP

membrane potential can drive the transport of charged molecules

Light

Transport that uses energy directly is considered primary active transport


Active transport secondary

Active transport (secondary)

-others are transported against concentration gradients using the energy of an even greater gradient of a second molecule


Terms and distinctions

Terms and distinctions

Uniporter: movement of one molecule

Coupled carriers: movement of one molecule in conjunction with a second

-Symport: both molecules in the same direction

-Antiport: molecules move in opposite directions (exchangers)

Electrogenic: movement results in the transfer of a charge

Electroneutral: no change in net charge as a result of transport


Atpases

ATPases

Many proteins use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to fuel transport.

(1) P-type ATPase e.g. Na+-K+ATPase


Atpases1

ATPases

Many proteins use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to fuel transport.

(1) P-type ATPase

Ca2+-ATPase is important in muscle activation

K+-H+-ATPase is important in acid secretion in stomach


Atpases2

ATPases

Many proteins use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to fuel transport.

(2) V-type ATPase

Multimeric transporters often work in the reverse direction (ATP synthesis)

F1Fo ATPase is the mitochondrial ATP synthase

H+-ATPase of lysosomes acidify the organelle


Atpases3

ATPases

(3) ABC Transporters

Many proteins have an “ATP-Binding Cassette” and move large molecules across membranes


Atpases4

ATPases

-Multi-drug resistant protein can pump drugs out of cells. Some cancers become resistant to cancer therapy by increasing expression of MDR, either by gene duplication or increased transcription

(3) ABC Transporters


Ion channels

Ion channels

Ion channels are pores that permit the movement of specific ions.

When open, the channels allow ions to move down concentration gradients


Ion channels1

Ion channels

Can “transport” 100,000,000 ions/ sec

A “selectivity filter” restricts movement to specific ions


Ion channels2

Ion channels

Movement is controlled by regulating “openness” –the proportion of time spent in the open configuration

Ion channels can be regulated by specific conditions to be open or closed

If opened for a prolonged period, the channels can become desensitized


Ion channels3

Ion channels


Types of ion channels

Types of ion channels

(1) Ligand-gated channels:

Usually opened by intracellular or extracellular ligands

e.g. IP3-sensitive Ca2+ channel opens in the presence of IP3


Ion channels4

Ion channels

(2) Voltage-gated channels:

Altering voltage beyond a threshold will cause the channel to open.


Ion channels5

Ion channels

(3) Mechanically-gated channels:

e.g. “stretch-activated channels” open when cell shape is altered.

Since channel is attached to the cytoskeleton, stretching causes a physical change in the protein


Ion channels and membrane potential

Ion channels and membrane potential

Ion channels, ion pumps and an impermeable membrane allow a membrane potential (see Panel 2 for a discussion of the Nerst equation)

Animals have 2 unique types of tissues that depend rapid changes in membrane potential

Nerves and muscles are “excitable tissues”


Chapter 11 membrane transport

How do you describe these processes?


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