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The Psychology of Child Development

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**1. **The Psychology of Child Development Keith Sawyer A shift to the “Education” part of the course themes.
Reading: Howard Gardner’s book, The unschooled mind, Chapter 2 “Conceptualizing the development of the mind.”A shift to the “Education” part of the course themes.
Reading: Howard Gardner’s book, The unschooled mind, Chapter 2 “Conceptualizing the development of the mind.”

**2. **Four Approaches Behaviorism
Constructivism
Evolutionary psychology
Socioculturalism Gardner provides a whirlwind tour of four broad approaches to the study of learning.
You could also call these “paradigms” or “theoretical frameworks.”
Gardner provides a whirlwind tour of four broad approaches to the study of learning.
You could also call these “paradigms” or “theoretical frameworks.”

**3. **1. Behaviorism Classroom example
Learning analysis I’ll start with an example from a high-school classroom, and how behaviorists design a lesson around “learning analysis.”
Then I’ll summarize some types of conditioning from behaviorist theory.
I’ll start with an example from a high-school classroom, and how behaviorists design a lesson around “learning analysis.”
Then I’ll summarize some types of conditioning from behaviorist theory.

**4. **Classroom Example Consumer mathematics class
Class objective: learn to estimate answers for division problems Consumer mathematics is a basic version of secondary math that focuses on everyday skills such as figuring your salary, buying stuff at the store, creating a budget, and balancing your checking account.
Today’s class objective: Learn to estimate answers for division problems, working in your headConsumer mathematics is a basic version of secondary math that focuses on everyday skills such as figuring your salary, buying stuff at the store, creating a budget, and balancing your checking account.
Today’s class objective: Learn to estimate answers for division problems, working in your head

**5. **Lesson Plan Review from last class: “mental math”
Lesson: compatible numbers
Worksheet: Practice problem-solving skills Review: in the last class, they had learned “mental math”—solving simple division in your head, like 20 divided by 5.
Now remember, the students have not yet learned how to do long division—they don’t know how to do decimal places or fractions.
2. “Compatible numbers” are numbers that divide into each other without remainder. The teacher gave several examples (730/10, 420/30, 70/28,000) and also nonexamples (735/11, 426/28, 61/28,753).
Then she gave the students some division problems with incompatible numbers and asked “How do we estimate the answer when the numbers are incompatible?” The teacher gave the students some simple and complex problems, and they each worked them at their desks.
3. Work on problem-solving skills, applying the knowledge learned.
LESSON PROGRESSED FROM LOWER-LEVEL TO HIGHER-LEVEL KNOWLEDGE. STUDENTS HAD TO MASTER PREREQUISITE SKILLS BEFORE MOVING TO NEXT HIGHER LEVEL.Review: in the last class, they had learned “mental math”—solving simple division in your head, like 20 divided by 5.
Now remember, the students have not yet learned how to do long division—they don’t know how to do decimal places or fractions.
2. “Compatible numbers” are numbers that divide into each other without remainder. The teacher gave several examples (730/10, 420/30, 70/28,000) and also nonexamples (735/11, 426/28, 61/28,753).
Then she gave the students some division problems with incompatible numbers and asked “How do we estimate the answer when the numbers are incompatible?” The teacher gave the students some simple and complex problems, and they each worked them at their desks.
3. Work on problem-solving skills, applying the knowledge learned.
LESSON PROGRESSED FROM LOWER-LEVEL TO HIGHER-LEVEL KNOWLEDGE. STUDENTS HAD TO MASTER PREREQUISITE SKILLS BEFORE MOVING TO NEXT HIGHER LEVEL.

**6. **Learning Analysis Classify the learning task
Analyze the task
Break down the task into prerequisite skills
Break down each prerequisite skill into lower-level prerequisite skills
Result: Construct a learning hierarchy Classify: is it a verbal skill? A cognitive skill? A motor skill? Is it about procedures, rules, or concepts?
Analyze: Break down the task into progressively lower-level task components.
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and Skinner’s “Teaching Machine”
Classify: is it a verbal skill? A cognitive skill? A motor skill? Is it about procedures, rules, or concepts?
Analyze: Break down the task into progressively lower-level task components.
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and Skinner’s “Teaching Machine”