American government politics pol 105
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American Government & Politics POL 105. Erik Rankin – Final Constitution Lecture. The Bill of Rights – 14th Amendment. Section 1 Clause 1 Response to Dred Scott case, citizen of the nation is independent of state citizenship Clause 2

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American Government & Politics POL 105

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American government politics pol 105

American Government & Politics POL 105

Erik Rankin – Final Constitution Lecture


The bill of rights 14th amendment

The Bill of Rights – 14th Amendment

  • Section 1

    • Clause 1

      • Response to Dred Scott case, citizen of the nation is independent of state citizenship

    • Clause 2

      • Rights due to citizenship may not be denied by a state in any way. EX – to travel, to vote, engage in interstate commerce

    • Clause 3

      • Applied 5th amendment Due Process to states and the protection of life, liberty, and property

    • Clause 4

      • Equal protection, preventing the state from discriminating actions towards any group

      • Originally based on race and later included gender


The bill of rights 14th amendment1

The Bill of Rights – 14th Amendment

  • Sections 2-4 are obsolete

  • Section 5 – gives constitutional authority to Congress to enforce through law provision in the 14th amendment

    • Ex: Civil Rights Acts of 1960 (public accomodations),1964 (Fair Housing),1991 (EEOC)


The bill of rights 15th amendment

The Bill of Rights – 15th Amendment

  • Section 1

    • Right to vote cannot be denied because of race

  • Section 2

    • Congress has the right to legislate on this

    • Ex: Voting Rights Act of 1965, strengthened in 1975, 1982


The bill of rights 16th amendment

The Bill of Rights – 16th Amendment

  • Ratified in 1913

  • Congress can set and collect income taxes


The bill of rights 17th amendment

The Bill of Rights – 17th Amendment

  • Superseded Article I Section 3

    • Senators are directly elected by the citizens of that state and not by state legislatures

    • Vacated seats may have them filled by the governor until the next election


The bill of rights 18th amendment

The Bill of Rights – 18th Amendment

  • Prohibition

  • Ratified in 1919

  • Repealed by the 21st amendment


The bill of rights 19th amendment

The Bill of Rights – 19th Amendment

  • Right to vote shall not be denied to women

  • Ratified in 1920

  • Congress can enforce this article through legislation


The bill of rights 20th amendment

The Bill of Rights – 20th Amendment

  • Terms of President and Vice President

    • Ratified in 1933

    • Originally Pres & VP took office in March

    • This eliminated the lame duck period and installed the Pres & VP on Jan

    • Congress adjourns before the elections and does not reseat until the 3rd of January

    • Also sets up solution to 3 person lack of majority in electoral College

      • Vice President serves until the House decides the winner


The bill of rights 21st amendment

The Bill of Rights – 21st Amendment

  • Repealed the 18th amendment

  • Back to the Keg!!!

  • Only amendment ratified by conventions rather than state legislatures

    • They were used to specifically deal with just the alcoholic beverage issue


The bill of rights 22nd amendment

The Bill of Rights – 22nd Amendment

  • Presidential Term Limits

    • Ratified in 1951

    • Limits the presidency to two terms

    • VP who assumes office after a death of the Pres. may still hold two terms in addition to the years of elevation


The bill of rights 23rd amendment

The Bill of Rights – 23rd Amendment

  • Presidential Vote for the District of Columbia

    • Ratified in 1961

    • Residents of the District of Columbia may vote for a president and VP

    • They have as many electoral votes as the smallest state

    • Always have at least 3 electoral votes


The bill of rights 24th amendment

The Bill of Rights – 24th Amendment

  • Barring Poll Tax in federal elections

    • Ratified in 1964

    • No taxes may be levied against a voter in a federal election

    • Left the window open for state poll taxes, but this has been struck down as unconstitutional by the Supreme Court as well

    • Payments said to violate the 14th amendments equal protection clause


The bill of rights 25th amendment

The Bill of Rights – 25th Amendment

  • Presidential Disability and Succession

    • Ratified in 1967

    • If a president considers himself unable to perform the duties of his office for any reason must notify the Speaker and the President Pro Tempore

    • The VP then becomes acting president until the president chooses to return

    • Don’t always have to hear from Pres., he may be incapacitated and the same procedure occurs

    • Pres. May appoint new VP with majority in both houses confirming

    • What if there is no VP?

    • Ever used?


The bill of rights 26thamendment

The Bill of Rights – 26thAmendment

  • Lowering the voting age to 18

    • Congress had no way to set voting age limits until this amendment

    • Ratified in less than 3 months- quick!

    • 18 to vote in any election, but don’t try and buy beer!


The bill of rights 27th amendment

The Bill of Rights – 27th Amendment

  • Congressional Pay

    • Ratified in 1992

    • Written by James Madison

    • 38 of 50 states voted in favor and it finally passed

      • Only a little over 200 years later, why the rush?


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