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American Government & Politics POL 105. Erik Rankin – Final Constitution Lecture. The Bill of Rights – 14th Amendment. Section 1 Clause 1 Response to Dred Scott case, citizen of the nation is independent of state citizenship Clause 2

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american government politics pol 105

American Government & Politics POL 105

Erik Rankin – Final Constitution Lecture

the bill of rights 14th amendment
The Bill of Rights – 14th Amendment
  • Section 1
    • Clause 1
      • Response to Dred Scott case, citizen of the nation is independent of state citizenship
    • Clause 2
      • Rights due to citizenship may not be denied by a state in any way. EX – to travel, to vote, engage in interstate commerce
    • Clause 3
      • Applied 5th amendment Due Process to states and the protection of life, liberty, and property
    • Clause 4
      • Equal protection, preventing the state from discriminating actions towards any group
      • Originally based on race and later included gender
the bill of rights 14th amendment1
The Bill of Rights – 14th Amendment
  • Sections 2-4 are obsolete
  • Section 5 – gives constitutional authority to Congress to enforce through law provision in the 14th amendment
    • Ex: Civil Rights Acts of 1960 (public accomodations),1964 (Fair Housing),1991 (EEOC)
the bill of rights 15th amendment
The Bill of Rights – 15th Amendment
  • Section 1
    • Right to vote cannot be denied because of race
  • Section 2
    • Congress has the right to legislate on this
    • Ex: Voting Rights Act of 1965, strengthened in 1975, 1982
the bill of rights 16th amendment
The Bill of Rights – 16th Amendment
  • Ratified in 1913
  • Congress can set and collect income taxes
the bill of rights 17th amendment
The Bill of Rights – 17th Amendment
  • Superseded Article I Section 3
    • Senators are directly elected by the citizens of that state and not by state legislatures
    • Vacated seats may have them filled by the governor until the next election
the bill of rights 18th amendment
The Bill of Rights – 18th Amendment
  • Prohibition
  • Ratified in 1919
  • Repealed by the 21st amendment
the bill of rights 19th amendment
The Bill of Rights – 19th Amendment
  • Right to vote shall not be denied to women
  • Ratified in 1920
  • Congress can enforce this article through legislation
the bill of rights 20th amendment
The Bill of Rights – 20th Amendment
  • Terms of President and Vice President
    • Ratified in 1933
    • Originally Pres & VP took office in March
    • This eliminated the lame duck period and installed the Pres & VP on Jan
    • Congress adjourns before the elections and does not reseat until the 3rd of January
    • Also sets up solution to 3 person lack of majority in electoral College
      • Vice President serves until the House decides the winner
the bill of rights 21st amendment
The Bill of Rights – 21st Amendment
  • Repealed the 18th amendment
  • Back to the Keg!!!
  • Only amendment ratified by conventions rather than state legislatures
    • They were used to specifically deal with just the alcoholic beverage issue
the bill of rights 22nd amendment
The Bill of Rights – 22nd Amendment
  • Presidential Term Limits
    • Ratified in 1951
    • Limits the presidency to two terms
    • VP who assumes office after a death of the Pres. may still hold two terms in addition to the years of elevation
the bill of rights 23rd amendment
The Bill of Rights – 23rd Amendment
  • Presidential Vote for the District of Columbia
    • Ratified in 1961
    • Residents of the District of Columbia may vote for a president and VP
    • They have as many electoral votes as the smallest state
    • Always have at least 3 electoral votes
the bill of rights 24th amendment
The Bill of Rights – 24th Amendment
  • Barring Poll Tax in federal elections
    • Ratified in 1964
    • No taxes may be levied against a voter in a federal election
    • Left the window open for state poll taxes, but this has been struck down as unconstitutional by the Supreme Court as well
    • Payments said to violate the 14th amendments equal protection clause
the bill of rights 25th amendment
The Bill of Rights – 25th Amendment
  • Presidential Disability and Succession
    • Ratified in 1967
    • If a president considers himself unable to perform the duties of his office for any reason must notify the Speaker and the President Pro Tempore
    • The VP then becomes acting president until the president chooses to return
    • Don’t always have to hear from Pres., he may be incapacitated and the same procedure occurs
    • Pres. May appoint new VP with majority in both houses confirming
    • What if there is no VP?
    • Ever used?
the bill of rights 26thamendment
The Bill of Rights – 26thAmendment
  • Lowering the voting age to 18
    • Congress had no way to set voting age limits until this amendment
    • Ratified in less than 3 months- quick!
    • 18 to vote in any election, but don’t try and buy beer!
the bill of rights 27th amendment
The Bill of Rights – 27th Amendment
  • Congressional Pay
    • Ratified in 1992
    • Written by James Madison
    • 38 of 50 states voted in favor and it finally passed
      • Only a little over 200 years later, why the rush?
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