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CASTL. Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning. Improving impacts of classrooms: Professional Development and Classroom Observation. Robert C. Pianta, Ph.D. University of Virginia CASTL. Questions and challenges for policy, research, and training in education.

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Improving impacts of classrooms professional development and classroom observation

CASTL

Center for Advanced Study

of Teaching and Learning

Improving impacts of classrooms:Professional Development and Classroom Observation

Robert C. Pianta, Ph.D.

University of Virginia

CASTL


Questions and challenges for policy research and training in education
Questions and challenges for policy, research, and training in education

  • What are offered to students in classrooms?

  • Do interactions with teachers and experiences in classrooms matter for students?

  • Can observation leverage improvements quality, and effectiveness of teachers/teaching?

  • Measure, validate, improve teacher quality at scale through standardized observation


Results of large scale observational studies
Results of large-scale observational studies in education

  • National-level studies

    • National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL)

    • NICHD Study of Early Child Care

  • Up to 1,000 settings observed at preschool, K, 1, 3, 5 ― more than 4,000 classrooms

  • Largest set of systematic standardized classroom observation in U.S. schools

  • All teachers credentialed/certified


Observations and large scale applications
Observations and large-scale applications in education

  • Trade-offs and decisions

    • Multiple versus single occasions

    • Length of the “window”

    • Time of day / content of instruction

    • Unit of analysis – global or micro

    • Classroom-level or child-level

    • Training demands and reliability

    • Applicable across diverse settings

  • No system can address every concern

  • Ultimate criterion is link to child outcomes


Describing opportunities to learn counting behaviors activities practices
Describing opportunities to learn: Counting behaviors, activities, practices

  • Vast majority of interaction/activity is whole group or individual seatwork

  • Few, if any, social or instructional interactions between teacher and individual child

  • Mostly literacy activities

  • Exceptional variation within and across grades

  • Consistent patterns from pre-k to 5th grade


How do students spend time? activities, practices

  • High levels (30%) of “business/routine” activity

    • pk-5: managing materials, routines

  • High levels of “basic skills” focus

    • 7:1 in pk-1; 14:1 in 3-5

  • Ratio of listening, sitting, watching: Doing

    • 10: pk-1 1,3,5

(NICHD ECCRN 2002, 2004)


Rating interactions what is the class
Rating interactions: What is the CLASS? activities, practices

  • Derived from developmentally-informed analysis of settings and putative impacts on broad-based outcomes.

  • Focus on dimensions of teacher-student interaction in 3 domains - a theoretical claim about latent structure of classroom settings

    • Emotional Support

    • Organization / Management

    • Instructional Support


Classroom Organization activities, practices

Emotional

Support

Instructional

Support

Regard for student perspective

Instructional learning

Behavior management

Positive climate

Negative climate

Concept development

Quality of feedback

Language modeling

Productivity

Sensitivity

formats

Relationships, Affect, Respect, Communication

Clear expectation, Proactive, Redirection

Analysis/reasoning, Creativity, Integration

Punitive, Sarcasm/ disrespect, Negativity

Feedback loops, Encourage responses, Expand performance

Maximize time, Efficient routines and transitions

Aware, Responsive, Address problem,

Comfort

Variety, Promote student interest, Clarity, Engaging

Conversation, Open-ended, Repeat/extend, Advanced language

Flexibility, Autonomy, Student expression

DOMAINS

DIMENSIONS

INDICATORS


Classroom ratings class pk 5
Classroom ratings: CLASS PK-5 activities, practices

  • Positive climate

  • Negative climate

  • Teacher sensitivity

  • Regard for student perspectives

  • Effective behavior management

  • Learning formats/engagement

  • Productivity

  • Concept development

  • Evaluative feedback

  • Language modeling

Emotional

Support

Organization/

Management

Instructional

Support


1 activities, practices

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

What is the quality of the classroom setting?

  • Positive emotional climate

  • Productivity

  • Quality of feedback


Profiles of classroom quality first grade
Profiles of classroom quality: First grade activities, practices

7

6

5

4

Quality

Emotional

3

Instructional

2

1

0

Positive emotional

climate

Low academic

demand

Very positive

emotional climate

High instructional

quality

Mediocre,

Low academic

demand

Negative emotional

climate,

Low instructional

quality

31%

23%

29%

17%


Associations with structural/selection factors activities, practices

  • Exceptional variability within and across grades, including across the same grade/curriculum. Stability across grades is low – 15%

  • Little to no association of observed interactions with:

    • Teacher experience or training

    • Teacher salary

  • Small associations with structure and selection (.10 - .20)

    • Class size: larger classes more structured; smaller classes more social and higher instructional quality

    • Family income/education related to more positive ratings

  • Students needing access to stable high-quality instruction do not typically receive it – 10% rate for low achievers


Classroom interactions and children’s activities, practices

social and academic performance

  • Designs that isolate effects for instructional and emotional inputs controlling for other influences – in growth models

    • Family and demographic factors

    • Child’s prior performance

    • Structural features of schooling

  • Primarily small main effects (+/- .10)

    • Instructional and emotional quality predict more positive achievement and social outcomes

    • Larger effects on more proximal outcomes (e.g., child engagement)

    • More instruction in literacy and math also predict to those outcomes

  • Stronger effects for different groups of children

    • Low maternal education

    • Adjustment problems in K

    • Poor


Pre k quality and growth in child outcomes
Pre-k quality and growth in child outcomes activities, practices

  • Where should we focus attention in policy, program development, and teacher preparation?

  • Predicting achievement growth during preK from:

    • Structural features (teacher ed., curriculum, etc.)

    • Observed interactions (ECERS, CLASS)

  • No association of structure with outcome, singly or in combination (e.g., NIEER index)

  • Instructional and Emotional Supports (CLASS) predict positive changes in literacy, language, and math skills – small effect sizes – persist into kindergarten


Gains in gr 1 achievement in instructionally supportive classrooms
Gains in Gr. 1 achievement in activities, practicesinstructionally supportive classrooms

107

106

105

Standardized tests of achievement adjusted

104

103

High educ.

102

101

Low educ.

100

99

98

Low

Moderate

High

1st Grade Instructional Support


Gains in gr 1 achievement in emotionally supportive classrooms
Gains in Gr. 1 achievement in activities, practicesemotionally supportive classrooms

107

106

Kindergarten

adjustment

problems

105

104

Standardized tests of achievement adjusted

103

No problems

102

101

Multiple problems

100

99

98

Low

Moderate

High

1st Grade Emotional Support


Implications of our work p 5
Implications of our work P-5 activities, practices

  • Redefine “teacher quality” in terms of performance/interactions in classroom

  • Strive toward moving instructional dimensions and implementation “up” the scale of quality interactions

  • Develop training and support approaches that address teachers’ interactions with children

  • Approach these goals systematically and scientifically with standardized, validated observations at core

  • A science of teaching and teacher-training that relies on direct and validated observation


Measurement issues/directions activities, practices

  • Develop extension of CLASS for grades 6-12

  • Ecometrics – Partitioning variance related to rater, time, day, season, window, consider alternative units of analysis.

  • Global features more stable, valid. Reliability improved through adding raters in the system. Implications for scalability and for research on intervention effects, etc.

  • Informant-report version; empirical tests of content-knowledge hypotheses


Standardized observation support for high quality interactions
Standardized observation: activities, practicesSupport for high-quality interactions

Professional development/ training

Observational Assessment

Social and academic outcomes for children

Resource allocation

CLASS

Instructional

Organization

Social

Improved teacher outcomes

Evaluation

Curriculum


myteachingpartner.net activities, practices


Focus on interactions in classrooms
Focus on interactions in classrooms activities, practices

  • Teacher-child interactions and relationships are the means by which the curricula are implemented

  • MTP uses CLASS as the basis for defining high-quality implementation and as the target/focus of professional development

  • Goals of MTP are to:

    • Increase teachers’ observation skills in identifying interactive behaviors and cues related to CLASS

    • Identify children’s differential responses to teacher behaviors

    • Increase teachers’ skills in identifying alternative responses to children's’ cues – create opportunity

myteachingpartner.net


Mtp support for teachers
MTP support for teachers activities, practices

Two forms of web-based support for quality implementation

MTP Activities

Teacher-child interactions and relationships: CLASS

Student growth in language, literacy and social relationships

myteachingpartner.net


Project design
Project design activities, practices

  • 240 Participating PreK teachers statewide - VPI

  • 3 Conditions of participation / levels of support

    • Consultancy plus website plus curriculum

    • Website access plus curriculum

    • Materials/curriculum only

  • All conditions

    • Receive iBook laptops

    • Receive MTP activities

    • Complete surveys and assess 4 randomly selected children

myteachingpartner.net


Quality teaching videos pk 3
Quality teaching videos: PK-3 activities, practices

myteachingpartner.net


Class examples pk 3
CLASS examples: PK-3 activities, practices

myteachingpartner.net


Mtp consultation cycle
MTP consultation cycle activities, practices

1

Classroom video recording

at an established time

2

4

Teacher and consultant

meet and discuss

teaching practices

Consultant reviews

and edits video clips

3

Teacher reviews clips

and reflects on practice

myteachingpartner.net


Prompts
Prompts activities, practices

“This clip is a nice demonstration of concept development. You ask the children why the girl in the book is happy. You receive one answer and then go on and get ideas from two other children. What other strategies do you use to promote concept development?”

Intended to identify positive aspect of teacher’s instruction in relation to a class dimension

myteachingpartner.net


Prompts1
Prompts activities, practices

“Here you quickly and effectively redirect the children back to the story. As you watch this clip, tell me what you are doing to help the children remember the rules.”

Intended to help a teacher identify CLASS dimensions and examples in her teaching interactions

myteachingpartner.net


Prompts2
Prompts activities, practices

“Some of the other children are

not engaged in this lesson.

What kinds of learning formats

might you have used to draw

all of the children in?”

Feedback on how the teacher implements lessons

myteachingpartner.net


Mtp s prompts feedback for teachers
MTP-S Prompts: Feedback for teachers activities, practices

myteachingpartner.net


Effects of MTP support on interactions activities, practices

  • Examine both effects of condition on outcome (web vs consultation), treatment on treated, and moderation with regard to classroom demands.

  • Teachers receiving consultation show greater increases in quality of instructional interactions; early career teachers who view CLASS videos show gains in interactions with children; effects seem attributable to video review

  • Consultation moderates poverty effect




Moderating effects of study condition on the association between classroom poverty and changes in teacher sensitivity


Moderating effects of study condition on the association between visiting video pages and changes in teacher sensitivity


Effects of MTP support on child outcomes between visiting video pages and changes in teacher sensitivity

  • Examine effects of condition and treatment on treated with Consultancy, Web, and Activities groups.

  • When teachers participate in consultation, children show greater gains in tests of early literacy


Associations between Teachers’ Exposure to the MyTeachingPartner Consultancy, Language and Literacy Activities and Web-Site, and Children’s Development of Language and Literacy Skills during Pre-K

*p≤.05. **p≤.01. ***p≤.001.


Associations between Teachers’ Exposure to the MyTeachingPartner Consultancy, Language and Literacy Activities and Web-Site, and Children’s Development of Language and Literacy Skills during Pre-K(continued)

*p≤.05. **p≤.01. ***p≤.001.


Moderating Effects of Teachers Years of Experience on the Association Between Exposure to the Consultancyand Children’s Development of Print Knowledge


Standardized observation of interactions Association Between Exposure to the Consultancy

  • Is feasible, reliable and valid. A scalable language and lens for classroom settings

  • Three domains: Emotional, Organizational, Instructional appear valid across grades

  • A lever for research on teacher professional development and preparation to increase setting quality and child outcomes

  • Implications for accountability systems, teacher quality, research on teacher ed.


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