Medieval africa
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Medieval Africa. Addressing the California Seventh-Grade Standards Laura J. Mitchell History Department, UCI [email protected] From Human Origins to Complex Societies. Domestication of livestock +/- 10,000 ybp Domestication of agriculture (crops) +/- 8,000 ybp

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Medieval africa

Medieval Africa

Addressing the California

Seventh-Grade Standards

Laura J. Mitchell

History Department, UCI

[email protected]


From human origins to complex societies

From Human Origins to Complex Societies

  • Domestication of livestock

    +/- 10,000 ybp

  • Domestication of agriculture (crops)

    +/- 8,000 ybp

  • Iron working technologies

    +/- 4,500 ybp

  • Increasing population concentration


Major social linguistic groups

Major Social/Linguistic Groups

  • Khoisan

    • (Bushmen; !Kung)

  • Niger-Congo

    • (Bantu)

  • Nilo-Saharan

    • (Masaai)

  • Afro-Asiatic

    • (Ethiopian, Berber)

Afro-Asiatic

Afro-Asiatic

Niger-Congo

Nilo-Saharan

Khoisan


Khoisan tradition

Khoisan Tradition

  • Gathering and hunting economies

  • Small, nomadic groups

  • Small, round houses

  • No hereditary leadership

  • Music & dance: single rhythmic beat

    • Stringed instruments; emphasize dance footwork

  • Rock art

  • Trance dancing

  • Non-theistic beliefs

[!Kung, /Xam, Nama]


Afro asiatic tradition

Afro-Asiatic Tradition

  • Earliest wild grain collectors

  • Clan-based communities

  • Clan diety worship

  • Rectangular houses; flat or sloping roof

  • Music: single melody & rhythm

    • Stringed instruments; no drums

  • Dance: swaying body; various footwork

[Ethiopian, Berber]


Nilo saharan tradition

Nilo-Saharan Tradition

  • Fishing in addition to hunting & gathering

  • Stone blades and spears

  • Non-theistic beliefs

[Masaai]


Niger congo tradition

Niger-Congo Tradition

  • Fishing technology; yam cultivation

    • Hook and line; baskets

  • Clan based; matrilineal

  • Hereditary clan chief

  • Compact village; rectangular houses

  • Skilled crafts: weaving, pottery, wood carving

  • Music and dance

    • Percussion, polyrhythmic

  • Polytheistic religion

[Bantu: Mande, Swahili, Zulu]


Bantu migration

Bantu Migration

  • Bantu language family

  • Niger-Congo tradition

  • Hypothesis of population movement based on linguistics


Examples of early state formation

Examples of Early State Formation

  • Pharaonic Egypt

  • Nubia

  • Aksum

  • Djenne-Jeno


Medieval africa

Pharaonic Egypt

Nubia

Djenne-Jeno

Aksum


Nubia

Nubia

  • Kush 730 BC conquered Egypt

  • Napata 600 BC retreat from Egypt

    • Assyrian armies conquered Egypt

  • Meroe 300 BC to +/- 100 AD

    • Technology migration @ collapse?


Aksum 200 bc 800 ad

Aksum 200 BC-800 AD

  • Written language: Ge’ez

  • Stone construction

    • stelae

  • Centralized power

  • Hierarchical society

  • Plants: ‘tef, ensete, coffee

  • Trade: port of Adulis

Afro-Asiatic Tradition


Djenne jeno 200 bc 1400 ad

Djenne-Jeno200 BC - 1400 AD

  • Ancient City

  • Complex society

  • Trade & Agriculture

  • Pre-Islamic

Niger-Congo Tradition


Djenne jeno 200 bc 1400 ad1

Djenne-Jeno200 BC - 1400 AD

  • 1600 years of occupation

  • Indigenous growth of trade

  • Social complexity

  • Economic specialization

  • Not coercive/centralized

  • Mande speakers

Niger-Congo Tradition


Elements of civilizations based on european assumptions

Elements of Civilizations(Based on European Assumptions)

  • Plough

  • Grain surplus/storage

  • Literacy

  • Complexification v. Centralization

  • Economic specialization

African examples challenge these assumptions

in significant ways!


Environmental factors

Environmental Factors

  • Water

  • River floods

  • Source of wood/fuel

    • Especially for iron smelting

  • Tropical locations

    • Disease implications


Rise of cities

Rise of Cities

  • Social stratification

    • What kind? What classes?

  • Trade

    • What goods? What trading partners?

  • Ideology

    • religion

  • Art & Architecture

  • Cities v. Citadels


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