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Inlets and Nozzles: Design Considerations. EGR 4347 Analysis and Design of Propulsion Systems. Subsonic Inlets: Major Design Variables/Choices. Inlet total pressure ratio and drag at cruise Engine location on wing or fuselage Aircraft attitude envelope

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inlets and nozzles design considerations

Inlets and Nozzles:Design Considerations

EGR 4347

Analysis and Design of Propulsion Systems

subsonic inlets major design variables choices
Subsonic Inlets:Major Design Variables/Choices
  • Inlet total pressure ratio and drag at cruise
  • Engine location on wing or fuselage
  • Aircraft attitude envelope
  • Inlet total pressure ratio and distortion envelope
  • Engine out windmilling airflow and drag
  • Integration of diffuser and fan flow path contour
  • Integration of external nacelle contour with thrust reverser or accessories
  • Flow field interaction with nacelle, pylon or wing
  • Noise suppression requirements
slide3

Inlet Considerations

  • Proximity to Ground - FOD
  • Proximity to nose gear - FOD
  • Proximity to Gun and Missile Bays - Smoke
  • Boundary layer buildup / diverter / stealth
  • Hide compressor face - stealth
  • Engine running during combat turn - access
  • Vortex ingestion - strake wakes
inlet integration
Inlet Integration
  • Keep ducts as short as possible
    • reduces volume, reduces viscous losses
    • limits on turning flow without separation
  • Keep offset ducts long enough to prevent separation
  • Use the wing and fuselage to shield the inlet, reduce distortion
  • Watch proximity to ground
nozzle design considerations
Nozzle Design Considerations
  • Accelerate the flow to high velocity with minimum total pressure loss
  • Match exit and atmospheric pressures as closely as desired
  • Permit afterburner operation without affecting main engine operation – requires variable-area nozzle
  • Allow for cooling of walls if necessary
  • Mix core and bypass streams of turbofan if necessary
  • Allow for thrust reversing if desired
  • Suppress jet noise and infrared radiation (IR) if desired
  • Thrust vector control if desired
gross thrust coefficient
Gross Thrust Coefficient
  • Exhaust velocity vector angularity
  • Friction in the boundary layers
  • Loss of massflow – leakage in nozzle
  • Flow nonuniformities
nozzle integration
Nozzle Integration
  • Smooth boat tails (e.g., F-18)
  • Minimize interference between ...
    • Nozzle and control surfaces
    • Nozzle and nozzle
  • Pay attention to rotation geometry
  • Evaluate trades
    • 2-D or round (axi) nozzles?
    • integrated into trailing edge?
    • shielded above? below? from the side?
    • thrust vectoring? reversing?
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