Unit 3 genetics
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Unit 3 – Genetics . Chapter 20~ DNA Technology & Genomics. O.J. Simpson capital murder case,1/95-9/95. Odds of blood in Ford Bronco not being R. Goldman’s: 6.5 billion to 1 Odds of blood on socks in bedroom not being N. Brown-Simpson’s: 8.5 billion to 1

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Unit 3 – Genetics

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Unit 3 genetics

Unit 3 – Genetics

  • Chapter 20~DNA Technology & Genomics


O j simpson capital murder case 1 95 9 95

O.J. Simpson capital murder case,1/95-9/95

  • Odds of blood in Ford Bronco not being R. Goldman’s:

  • 6.5 billion to 1

  • Odds of blood on socks in bedroom not being N. Brown-Simpson’s:

  • 8.5 billion to 1

  • Odds of blood on glove not being from R. Goldman, N. Brown-Simpson, and O.J. Simpson:

  • 21.5 billion to 1

  • Number of people on planet earth:

  • 6.1 billion

  • Odds of being struck by lightning in the U.S.:

  • 2.8 million to 1

  • Odds of winning the Illinois Big Game lottery:

  • 76 million to 1

  • Odds of getting killed driving to the gas station to buy a lottery ticket

  • 4.5 million to 1

  • Odds of seeing 3 albino deer at the same time:

  • 85 million to 1

  • Odds of having quintuplets:

  • 85 million to 1

  • Odds of being struck by a meteorite:

  • 10 trillion to 1


Recombinant dna

Recombinant DNA

  • Def: DNA in which genes from 2 different sources are linked

  • Genetic engineering: direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes

  • Biotechnology: manipulation of organisms or their components to perform practical tasks or provide useful products


Bacterial plasmids in gene cloning

Bacterial plasmids in gene cloning


Dna cloning

DNA Cloning

  • Restriction enzymes (endonucleases):in nature, these enzymes protect bacteria from intruding DNA; they cut up the DNA (restriction); very specific

  • Restriction site:recognition sequence for a particular restriction enzyme

  • Restriction fragments:segments of DNA cut by restriction enzymes in a reproducable way

  • Sticky end:short extensions of restriction fragments

  • DNA ligase: enzyme that can join the sticky ends of DNA fragments

  • Cloning vector: DNA molecule that can carry foreign DNA into a cell and replicate there (usually bacterial plasmids)


Steps for eukaryotic gene cloning

Steps for eukaryotic gene cloning

  • Isolation of cloning vector (bacterial plasmid) & gene-source DNA (gene of interest)

  • Insertion of gene-source DNA into the cloning vector using the same restriction enzyme; bind the fragmented DNA with DNA ligase

  • Introduction of cloning vector into cells (transformation by bacterial cells)

  • Cloning of cells (and foreign genes)

  • Identification of cell clones carrying the gene of interest


Dna analysis genomics

DNA Analysis & Genomics

  • PCR (polymerase chain reaction)

  • Gel electrophoresis

  • Restriction fragment analysis (RFLPs)

  • Southern blotting

  • DNA sequencing

  • Human genomeproject


Polymerase chain reaction pcr

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

  • Amplification of any piece of DNA without cells (in vitro)

  • Materials: heat, DNA polymerase, nucleotides, single-stranded DNA primers

  • Applications: fossils, forensics, prenatal diagnosis, etc.


Dna analysis

DNA Analysis

  • Gel electrophoresis: separates nucleic acids or proteins on the basis of size or electrical charge creating DNA bands of the same length


Restriction fragment analysis

Restriction fragment analysis

  • Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)

  • Southern blotting: process that reveals sequences and the RFLPs in a DNA sequence

  • DNA Fingerprinting


Dna sequencing

DNA Sequencing

  • Determination of nucleotide sequences (Sanger method, sequencing machine)

  • Genomics: the study of genomes based onDNA sequences

  • Human Genome Project


Practical dna technology uses

Practical DNA Technology Uses

  • Diagnosis of disease

  • Human gene therapy

  • Pharmaceutical products (vaccines)

  • Forensics

  • Animal husbandry (transgenic organisms)

  • Genetic engineering in plants

  • Ethical concerns?


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