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Unit 3 – Genetics . Chapter 20~ DNA Technology & Genomics. O.J. Simpson capital murder case,1/95-9/95. Odds of blood in Ford Bronco not being R. Goldman’s: 6.5 billion to 1 Odds of blood on socks in bedroom not being N. Brown-Simpson’s: 8.5 billion to 1

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unit 3 genetics
Unit 3 – Genetics
  • Chapter 20~ DNA Technology & Genomics
o j simpson capital murder case 1 95 9 95
O.J. Simpson capital murder case,1/95-9/95
  • Odds of blood in Ford Bronco not being R. Goldman’s:
  • 6.5 billion to 1
  • Odds of blood on socks in bedroom not being N. Brown-Simpson’s:
  • 8.5 billion to 1
  • Odds of blood on glove not being from R. Goldman, N. Brown-Simpson, and O.J. Simpson:
  • 21.5 billion to 1
  • Number of people on planet earth:
  • 6.1 billion
  • Odds of being struck by lightning in the U.S.:
  • 2.8 million to 1
  • Odds of winning the Illinois Big Game lottery:
  • 76 million to 1
  • Odds of getting killed driving to the gas station to buy a lottery ticket
  • 4.5 million to 1
  • Odds of seeing 3 albino deer at the same time:
  • 85 million to 1
  • Odds of having quintuplets:
  • 85 million to 1
  • Odds of being struck by a meteorite:
  • 10 trillion to 1
recombinant dna
Recombinant DNA
  • Def: DNA in which genes from 2 different sources are linked
  • Genetic engineering: direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes
  • Biotechnology: manipulation of organisms or their components to perform practical tasks or provide useful products
dna cloning
DNA Cloning
  • Restriction enzymes (endonucleases): in nature, these enzymes protect bacteria from intruding DNA; they cut up the DNA (restriction); very specific
  • Restriction site: recognition sequence for a particular restriction enzyme
  • Restriction fragments: segments of DNA cut by restriction enzymes in a reproducable way
  • Sticky end: short extensions of restriction fragments
  • DNA ligase: enzyme that can join the sticky ends of DNA fragments
  • Cloning vector: DNA molecule that can carry foreign DNA into a cell and replicate there (usually bacterial plasmids)
steps for eukaryotic gene cloning
Steps for eukaryotic gene cloning
  • Isolation of cloning vector (bacterial plasmid) & gene-source DNA (gene of interest)
  • Insertion of gene-source DNA into the cloning vector using the same restriction enzyme; bind the fragmented DNA with DNA ligase
  • Introduction of cloning vector into cells (transformation by bacterial cells)
  • Cloning of cells (and foreign genes)
  • Identification of cell clones carrying the gene of interest
dna analysis genomics
DNA Analysis & Genomics
  • PCR (polymerase chain reaction)
  • Gel electrophoresis
  • Restriction fragment analysis (RFLPs)
  • Southern blotting
  • DNA sequencing
  • Human genomeproject
polymerase chain reaction pcr
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • Amplification of any piece of DNA without cells (in vitro)
  • Materials: heat, DNA polymerase, nucleotides, single-stranded DNA primers
  • Applications: fossils, forensics, prenatal diagnosis, etc.
dna analysis
DNA Analysis
  • Gel electrophoresis: separates nucleic acids or proteins on the basis of size or electrical charge creating DNA bands of the same length
restriction fragment analysis
Restriction fragment analysis
  • Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)
  • Southern blotting: process that reveals sequences and the RFLPs in a DNA sequence
  • DNA Fingerprinting
dna sequencing
DNA Sequencing
  • Determination of nucleotide sequences (Sanger method, sequencing machine)
  • Genomics: the study of genomes based on DNA sequences
  • Human Genome Project
practical dna technology uses
Practical DNA Technology Uses
  • Diagnosis of disease
  • Human gene therapy
  • Pharmaceutical products (vaccines)
  • Forensics
  • Animal husbandry (transgenic organisms)
  • Genetic engineering in plants
  • Ethical concerns?
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