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WHAP Time Period Five 1914 - Present. Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High School Jacksonville, FL. WHAP Time Period Four. Slides based on the Ethel Wood Study Guide Publication Ordering information: www.dsmarketing.com/books_worldhistory.html. 1914 - Present.

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WHAP Time Period Five 1914 - Present

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Whap time period five 1914 present

WHAP Time Period Five 1914 - Present

Kevin Sacerdote

Mandarin High School

Jacksonville, FL


Whap time period four

WHAP Time Period Four

  • Slides based on the Ethel Wood Study Guide Publication

  • Ordering information:

  • www.dsmarketing.com/books_worldhistory.html

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


1914 present

1914 - Present

  • Slides based on the Ethel Wood Study Guide Publication

  • Ordering information:

  • www.dsmarketing.com/books_worldhistory.html

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Charts to assist you

Charts to Assist You

  • I have already posted numerous charts for most time periods on one of my web sites:

  • www.mandarin.groupfusion.net

    • Choose Sacerdote’s Classes

    • Choose World History AP

    • Click “Join Class” (upper left corner)

    • Wait for my acceptance

    • Go to site, under “Section Files” (lower right) click “STUFF” to access the charts.

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Whap course themes

WHAP Course Themes

  • Demonstrate your knowledge by including these themes in your essays:

  • 1. Impact of interaction among and within major societies;2. The relationship of change and continuity across the periods covered;3. Impact of technology and demography on people and the environment;

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Course themes continued

Course Themes (continued)

  • 4. Systems of social structure and gender structure (comparing major features within and among societies and assessing change).5. Cultural and intellectual developments and interactions among societies; and6. Changes in functions and structures of states and in attitudes toward states and political identities (political culture), including the emergence of nation-state (types of political organization).

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


The world since 1914

The World Since 1914

  • World War I (ends European hegemony) & Russian Revolution

  • The Rise of Totalitarianism

  • World War II

  • The Cold War Era (1945-1991)

    • The International System as developed

    • The United States and its Allies v. The U.S.S.R. and its Allies

    • Domestic Cold War Issues

    • International Cold War Issues

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


1914 present1

1914 - Present

  • Post Cold War Period

    • The Era of Mikhail Gorbachev, Yeltsin & Putin

      • Perestroika, Glasnost, & Democratization

    • Fall of Communism in the Eastern Bloc

    • Fall of Communism in the Former Soviet Union

    • Globalization, and the World of Terror

    • Deng Xiaoping and the Rise of China

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Distinguishing characteristics 1914 present

Distinguishing Characteristics: 1914 - Present

  • Redefinition and repositioning of the “West”

    • Post WW II the center of the west became the USA, not Europe as was the case in the last time period

    • Note the population growth rates on the East versus the West, North versus Southern hemispheres. How will this impact the future?

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Distinguishing characteristics 1914 present1

Distinguishing Characteristics: 1914 - Present

  • Increase in International Contact

    • Trade and Communication has made the world much more transparent

    • Technological connections allowed the spread of culture and science

    • The impact of International Organizations

      • League of Nations, United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, the EU

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Distinguishing characteristics 1914 present2

Distinguishing Characteristics: 1914 - Present

  • The Democratic Transition

    • Many monarchies are replaced

  • Changes in Belief systems

    • Is there a world-wide trend away from belief systems?

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Distinguishing characteristics 1914 present3

Distinguishing Characteristics: 1914 - Present

  • Questioning of Systems of Inequality

    • Widespread reforms of the 20th c.

      • Major civil rights movements for racial and ethnic minorities shook the United States, India, South Africa (Apartheid)

      • Decolonization Concerns & Opportunities

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Other concerns to mull over

Other Concerns to Mull Over

  • War & Diplomacy

    • First half of the 20th c. marred by war, and Holocaust

    • Second half the Cold War

  • New Patterns of Nationalism

    • Continued to shape interactions among nations

    • Decolonization post WW II reflected and promoted nationalism in former colonies

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Other concerns to mull over1

Other Concerns to Mull Over

  • Impact of Major Global Economic Developments

    • The Great Depression

  • Political Revolutions and Innovations

    • Revolutions shake Russia, China, and Latin America

    • The Long Wars of the 20th c.: Liberal Democracy, Communism, or Fascism

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Other concerns to mull over2

Other Concerns to Mull Over

  • Social Reform and Revolution

    • Reform led to changes in gender roles, family structures, the rise of feminism, peasant protests, and internationalism Marxism

  • Globalization of science, technology, and culture

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Other concerns to mull over3

Other Concerns to Mull Over

  • Demographic and Environmental Changes

    • Migrations of people from Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean to industrialized countries

    • The environment was damaged due to deforestation, urbanization, and industrialization (presently in China, India, etc…)

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Major causes for ww i

Major Causes for WW I

  • Imperialism (esp. Scramble for Africa)

  • Expansionism

  • Nationalism

  • Entangling, Secret and Shifting Alliances

  • Naval Arms Race

  • French Revenge

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Emergence of the russian revolution

Emergence of the Russian Revolution

  • Tsarist Russia (1613 – 1917)

    • Entry into WW I amplified existing stresses and the oppressive Romanov Rule ends with the abdication of Nicholas II

    • Food shortages, strikes, mutinies lead to the creation of a provisional government of Kerensky

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Emergence of the russian revolution soviet russia

Emergence of the Russian Revolution & Soviet Russia

  • Vladimir Ilyich Lenin & the Bolsheviks Fail in July of 1917, but succeed in October/November 1917

  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk pulls Russia out of WW I in January of 1918

  • Stalin takes over in 1924 until 1953

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Versailles the great war

Versailles & the Great War

  • A marker event, a true fiasco

  • The first in a series of events that led to declining European Power and ascending power for the US and Japan

    • 27 nations gathered at Versailles in 1919

      • Russia was NOT invited

      • Pres. Wilson of the USA’s 14 Points

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Versailles the great war1

Versailles & the Great War

The Treaty of Versailles

  • Germany lost lands (Alsace-Lorraine & Polish Corridor)

  • German military was restricted and a DMZ along France and Belgium was created

  • German Monetary Reparations were HUGE, Guilt Clause

  • League of Nations was created

  • Germany lost oversea possessions

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Roots of ww ii

Roots of WW II

  • A continuation of the First World War

  • 20 years of peace between the two world wars (if you leave out Japanese aggression)

  • Rooted in a continuation of unsettled business from WW I

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Rise of japan

Rise of Japan

  • The Meji Restoration of the late 19th c. greatly strengthened Japan

    • Militarily, politically, and economically

    • Imitated western imperialists

    • Success in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)

    • Made 21 Trade demands of China (1915)

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Rise of japan expansionism

Rise of Japan: Expansionism

  • Invaded traditionally Chinese Manchuria in 1931

  • Full scale invasion of China in 1937 and rapidly took control of China’s eastern shoreline

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Italy pre ww ii

Italy : Pre-WW II

  • Prime Minister Orlando of Italy was called home due to the rise of Mussolini

    • Mussolini appeals to Italian Nationalism

    • Wants to bring Italy back to Roman greatness

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Germany post ww i

Germany Post WW I

  • Establishes the Weimar Republic

    • Doomed from the start

    • Leader General Hindenberg

      • War debts

      • Vital resources taken by France

      • Huge Inflation

      • Desperate times

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Hitler

Hitler

  • WW I soldier

  • German Socialist Workers Party gains popularity, It is US AGAINST THE WORLD

  • Beer Hall Putsch in Munich

  • Mein Kampf

  • Appointed Chancellor, anti-Communist warnings to businessmen

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Hitler1

Hitler

  • Begins to blatantly breaks provisions in the Treaty of Versailles

    • He rebuilds the military

    • Claims lands outside the Versailles limits

    • Seizes the resource-rich Rhineland from France

    • His NAZI state was authoritarian and militaristic, and like Japan and Italy incredibly expansionist

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Hitler2

Hitler

  • Attacked a German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia: The Sudetenland

    • The Czech’s call for help, and at a meeting in Munich 1938 Britain’s Prime Minister Chamberlain (APPEASEMENT)

      • We have achieved, “Peace in Our Time”

      • The west turns their back on the CZECH’s

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Nature of ww ii

Nature of WW II

  • Worldwide Participation: only 11 nations did not become involved in the war

  • Fighting in Various “theatres” or “arenas”

  • Airplanes and Tanks Dominate

  • Radar emerges

  • Widespread Killing of Civilians

  • Overall at least 35 million died

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


The holocaust

The Holocaust

  • Genocide (ethnic-based killing)

    • Japanese torture & killed 300,000 Chinese (Rape of Nanjing)

    • USA Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Killed and wounded a couple hundred thousand

    • 6 Million European Jews are killed by Germany (other gypsies, dissidents, communists, Catholics are also killed)

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


The holocaust1

The Holocaust

  • The "final solution" to the "Jewish problem" included death by gassing, electrocution, phenol injections, flamethrowers, and machine guns.

  • Others died in concentration camps from starvation and medical experiments.

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


The course of ww ii

The Course of WW II

  • The war officially began in Europe with Hitler's invasion of Poland in 1939.

  • He used a war technique called blitzkrieg (lightning war) to quickly conquer Poland, Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium and France.

  • Blitzkrieg involved bombing civilian targets and rapidly moving troops, tanks, and mechanized carriers.

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Germany russia

Germany/Russia

  • Germany stretched its armies when in decided to attack Russia to the east, despite an earlier non-aggression treaty signed between the two countries.

  • The attack sparked Russia's entry on the Allied side in 1941, and the Germans suffered their first defeat of the war in Stalingrad in 1942.

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Course of ww ii

Course of WW II

  • The course of the war changed dramatically when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii in 1941, causing the United States to enter the war, and

  • Played a larger role in WW II when compared to the first world war

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Post world war ii international organizations

Post-World War II International Organizations

  • The United Nations was chartered during an international meeting in San Francisco in September 1945.

  • About 50 nations signed the charter, a number that had swelled to over 180 by the end of the century.

  • NATO was formed in 1949 as a defensive alliance among the U.S., Canada, and western European nations. In response, the Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact, including eastern European nations

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


The cold war usa versus the ussr

The Cold WarUSA versus the USSR

1945 - 1991


Causes of the cold war

Causes of the Cold War

  • Fear,

  • Mistrust,

  • Ideological Differences,

  • Domestic Politics,

  • Expansionism,

  • Geopolitics,

  • Opportunities,

  • Maintaining a balance of power,

  • the International System, Arms Race

  • Germany, control one’s destiny, Russo-Centricism, McCarthyism)

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


The yalta conference feb 1945

The Yalta Conference: Feb. 1945

  • FDR, Churchill, Stalin (Big Three)

  • Free Elections for occupied lands

  • Does FD Roosevelt overlook the growing Soviet “interest” in Eastern Europe because he may need the Soviet’s assistance with a storming of Japan’s four main islands?

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Lend lease act of 1941

Lend-Lease Act of 1941

  • From 1941 –May 1945 the USA shipped the USSR the following items*:

    • 15,000 planes

    • 7,000 tanks

    • 52,000 jeeps

    • 400,000 trucks

      * Cold War Almanac (Vol. 1) Sharon M. Hanes & Richard C. Hanes, Thomson Gale Publishing

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


May 1945

May 1945

  • May 7, 1945 the defeated Germans officially surrender

  • May 11, 1945: President Truman abruptly ended shipments of wartime supplies to the Soviets

    • This put an end to all aid except what the Soviets needed to fight Japan…Stalin was furious.

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


The potsdam conference july 1945

The Potsdam Conference: July 1945

  • A New Big Three:

    • Stalin 21 years in office

    • President Truman about 3 months in office

    • Prime Minister Churchill (1940 45 then voted out of office as this starts, he will later be elected again 1951-55)

    • Clement Attlee (July of 1945 – 1951)

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Potsdam

Potsdam

  • USSR has many troops occupying Eastern Europe by the time Germany surrenders. Including Poland (their prize)

  • Stalin wants a “buffer zone”

  • Tensions running very high

  • Future of Germany discussed

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Truman doctrine

Truman Doctrine

  • Truman fears Yugoslavia’s Tito wants Greece, and

  • Stalin wants Turkey

  • Truman speech to Congress

  • We will aid any country where free people’s feel threatened

  • $400 Million in aid

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


European recovery plan the marshall plan

European Recovery Plan “The Marshall Plan”

  • Collectively Europe would meet and decide how much money they needed to rebuild

  • Western Europe is all over the plan, Eastern Europe is warned by Stalin not to participate (walk out of Paris meetings)

  • Yugoslavia’s Tito (“Our Little Communist”) takes $151 million

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Marshall plan

Marshall Plan

  • Truman requests $17 Billion

    • Between $12 – 13.5 Billion is given

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Nsc 68 1950

NSC – 68 (1950)

  • National Security Council Document 68

    • Outlined a plan for keeping Soviet influence contained within existing areas

    • The strategy would require dramatic increase in military spending

    • Unprecedented for the US during peacetime

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Decolonization

Decolonization

  • Nationalism with newly created independent countries in Africa, Asia, India, the Caribbean, etc… once again changed the balance of power in the world

    • Be familiar especially with India, the creation of the Pakistan’s, Vietnam, Algeria, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, and Cuba

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


1914 present major global economic developments

1914 – Present Major Global Economic Developments

  • The Great Depression

  • The Computer and information age

  • Multinational Corporations

  • The Rise of the Asian Tigers (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore), and China

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Cold war in asia

Cold War in Asia

  • Mao (Communist) finally defeats Chiang Kai-Shek (KMT)

  • China adopts communism 10-1-1949

  • Chiang Kai-Shek Flees to Formosa (Taiwan) protected by our 7th Fleet

  • 1950-1953 The Korean Conflict

    • North Korea attacks below the 38th p.

    • Still divided today (politically)

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Cold war in asia vietnam

Cold War in Asia: Vietnam

  • French lose the Battle of Dien Bien Phu (1954) They warn us!

  • Geneva Conference (Vietnam’s Future)

  • Ike send in military advisors

  • War escalates throughout the 60’s

  • Nixon’s Peace with Honor

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Ideologies to study communism

Ideologies to Study: Communism

  • Communism - Karl Marx's communist theory was revolutionized during the early 20ths century in Russia by Vladimir Lenin, a leader of the Bolsheviks, a group that eventually took over the country.

  • Whereas Marx envisioned revolutions of the proletariat (workers) as occurring in capitalist countries where workers were most oppressed, Lenin advocated democratic centralism

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Communism in russia

Communism in Russia

  • Under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, Russia withdrew from the war and was named the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

  • After a four-year civil war, Lenin established his control over the country, and the U.S.S.R. became the first communist regime of the 20th century.

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Stalinism

Stalinism

  • Stalinism was characterized not only by industrialization and collectivization, but by brutal, centralized control of government that held little resemblance to Marxist doctrine.

  • Despite his purges of untold millions of people, Stalin did lead the Soviet Union to industrialize faster than any country had ever done.

  • By the late 1930s, the U.S.S.R. was the world's third largest industrial power, after the United States and Germany.

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Post stalin ussr

Post Stalin USSR

  • Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to revive the country through a 3-pronged program:

  • Perestroika &endash; Economic reforms attempted to infuse some capitalism into the system, reduce the size of the army, stimulate under-producing factories, and stabilize the monetary system.

  • Glasnost - Loosely translated as "openness", glasnost attempted to loosen censorship restrictions and allow nationalist minorities to address their concerns to the government.

  • Democratization - Gorbachev's plan allowed some choice of candidates for the national congress, a body that in turn selected a president.

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Gorby

Gorby

  • Gorbachev reforms backfired after a conservative coup attempt in 1991. Although the coup failed, and Gorbachev retained his position as president, the crisis resulted in unrest that quickly brought an end to the U.S.S.R. as the republics one by one declared their independence.

  • By the year's end, Gorbachev had no job because he had no country, and Russia - the largest of the republics - emerged under the leadership of Boris Yeltsin. The 1990s saw a weakened Russia struggling to establish a democracy and regain some of its former power

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


China mao

China & Mao

  • CHINA UNDER MAO

  • At first, Mao accepted a great deal of aid from the Soviet Union, establishing Five-Year Plans modeled after those instituted by Stalin.

  • He broke with the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and instituted his Great Leap Forward to compensate for the loss of Soviet aid. This program emphasized both agricultural and industrial development, but the economy nose-dived. Mao responded with the Cultural Revolution in 1966

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


China deng xiaoping

China & Deng Xiaoping

  • Deng Xiaoping, encouraged a practical mix of socialism and capitalism called the socialist market economy, a tactic that brought better economic health to China.

  • During the late 20th century, China became more and more capitalistic while still retaining centralized control by the government.

  • Tensions between economic reform and the centralized communist political system erupted into popular disruptions, most famously at Tiananmen Square in Beijing in 1989.

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Social reform and social revolution review

SOCIAL REFORM AND SOCIAL REVOLUTION (REVIEW)

  • FEMINIST MOVEMENTS

  • BLACK NATIONALISM

    • Including ML King JR (Nonviolence)

  • GLOBALIZATION OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND CULTURE

  • POPULATION INCREASES, Migrations, Population pyramids (breaking down via Age/ Group)

  • Green Issues, Climatic Change

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Communism

Communism

  • In China, Mao Zedong's communism stressed the importance of agriculture and the peasants, but he also exercised totalitarian power after his takeover of the country in 1949

    • Great Leap Forward

    • The Great Proletariat Cultural Revolution

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


Fascism

Fascism

  • Fascism, an authoritarian political movement that sought to subordinate individuals to the service of the state, first developed under Benito Mussolini in Italy.

  • Mussolini advocated an extreme nationalism that claimed to regain the power and glory of the ancient Roman Empire.

  • Fascism spread to other countries, including Germany, where Adolf Hitler fashioned it into Nazism.

Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL


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