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Management 11e John Schermerhorn . Chapter 12 Human Resource Management. Planning Ahead — Chapter 12 Study Questions. What is human resource management? How do organizations attract a quality workforce? How do organizations develop a quality workforce?

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management 11e john schermerhorn

Management 11e John Schermerhorn

Chapter 12Human Resource Management

planning ahead chapter 12 study questions
Planning Ahead — Chapter 12 Study Questions
  • What is human resource management?
  • How do organizations attract a quality workforce?
  • How do organizations develop a quality workforce?
  • How do organizations maintain a quality workforce?

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 1 what is human resource management
Study Question 1: What is human resource management?
  • Human Resource Management is a process of attracting, developing, and maintaining a talented work force
  • Human capital is the economic value of people with job-relevant abilities, knowledge, ideas, energies and commitments

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 1 what is strategic human resource management
Study Question 1: What is strategic human resource management?
  • Major human resource management responsibilities:

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 1 what is human resource management1
Study Question 1: What is human resource management?
  • Person-job fit
    • The individual’s skills, interests, and personal characteristics are consistent with the requirements of work
  • Person-organization fit
    • The individuals values, interests, and behavior are consistent with the culture of the organization

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 1 what is human resource management2
Study Question 1: What is human resource management?
  • Strategic human resource management mobilizes human capital to implement organizational strategies
  • Discrimination in employment
    • Occurs when someone is denied a job or job assignment for reasons that are not job relevant
  • Equal employment opportunity
    • The right to employment without regard to race, color, national origin, religion, gender, age, or physical or mental ability
    • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972
    • Civil Rights Act (EEOA) of 1991
figure 12 1 a sample of u s laws against employment discrimination
Figure 12.1 A sample of U.S. laws against employment discrimination

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 1 what is human resource management3
Study Question 1: What is human resource management?
  • Affirmative action
    • An effort to give preference in employment to women and minority group members
  • Bona fide occupational qualifications
    • employment criteria justified by capacity to perform a job
  • Additional laws against employment discrimination:
    • Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990
    • Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 as amended in 1978 and 1986
    • Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978
    • Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993
  • Current legal issues in HRM
    • Sexual harassment
    • Equal pay and comparable worth
    • Legal status of independent contractors
    • Workplace privacy

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 2 how do organizations attract a quality workforce
Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce?
  • Human resource planning analyzes an organization’s HR needs and how to best fill them
  • The foundation of human resource planning is job analysis
    • The orderly study of job facts to determine just what is done, when, where, how, why, and by whom in existing or potential new jobs
  • Job analysis provides information for developing:
    • Job descriptions
    • Job specifications

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 2 how do organizations attract a quality workforce1
Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce?
  • Recruitment
    • Activities designed to attract a qualified pool of job applicants to an organization
    • Steps in the recruitment process:
      • Advertisement of a job vacancy
      • Preliminary contact with potential job candidates
      • Initial screening to create a pool of qualified applicants

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 2 how do organizations attract a quality workforce3
Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce?
  • Selection
    • Choosing from a pool of applicants the person or persons who offer the greatest performance potential

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 2 how do organizations attract a quality workforce4
Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce?
  • Selection process

Management 11e Chapter 12

figure 12 3 steps in the selection process the case of a rejected job applicant
Figure 12.3 Steps in the selection process: the case of a rejected job applicant

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 2 how do organizations attract a quality workforce5
Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce?
  • Reliability means that a selection device gives consistent results time after time
  • Validity means that there is a clear relationship between what the selection device measures and job performance
  • Interviews
    • Unstructured interviews do not follow a formal and pre-established of questions
    • Behavioral interviews ask job applicants about past behaviors that relate to the job
    • Situational interviews ask job applicants how they would react in specific situations

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 2 how do organizations attract a quality workforce6
Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce?
  • Employment Tests
    • Used to further screen applicants by gathering additional job-relevant information
    • Assessment centers examine how job candidates handle simulated work situations
    • Work sampling involves observing applicants performing actual work tasks
    • Biodata methods collect biographical information that has been proven to correlate with good job performance along with other traits such as

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 3 how do organizations develop a quality workforce
Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce?
  • Socialization
    • Process of influencing the expectations, behavior, and attitudes of a new employee in a way considered desirable by the organization
  • Orientation
    • Set of activities designed to familiarize new employees with their jobs, coworkers, and key aspects of the organization

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 3 how do organizations develop a quality workforce1
Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce?
  • Training
    • Activities that provide the opportunity to acquire and improve job-related skills

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 3 how do organizations develop a quality workforce2
Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce?
  • Performance management systems ensure that
    • Performance standards and objectives are set
    • Performance results are assessed regularly
    • Actions are taken to improve future performance potential
  • Performance appraisal
    • Formally assessing someone’s work accomplishments and providing feedback
    • Purposes of performance appraisal:
      • Evaluation — lets people know where they stand relative to objectives and standards
      • Development — assists in training and continued personal development of people

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 3 how do organizations develop a quality workforce3
Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce?
  • Graphic rating scales
    • A trait-based performance appraisal that includes checklists of traits or characteristics to evaluate performance
    • Relatively quick and easy to use
    • Questionable reliability and validity
  • Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
    • A behavior-based performance appraisal that describes actual behaviors that exemplify various levels of performance achievement in a job
    • More reliable and valid than graphic rating scales
    • Helpful in training people to master important job skills

Management 11e Chapter 12

figure 12 4 sample behaviorally anchored rating scale for performance appraisal
Figure 12.4 Sample behaviorally anchored rating scale for performance appraisal

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 3 how do organizations develop a quality workforce4
Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce?
  • Recency bias is the tendency for evaluators to focus on recent behaviors instead of behavior that occurred throughout the evaluation period

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 3 how do organizations develop a quality workforce5
Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce?
  • Critical-incident techniques
    • Keeping a running log or inventory of effective and ineffective behaviors
    • Documents success or failure patterns
  • Results-based performance appraisals focus on accomplishments
    • Usually qualitative and objective
    • Determining what to measure may be difficult
    • May create ethical problems
  • Multiperson comparisons
    • Formally compare one person’s performance with that of one or more others
    • Types of multiperson comparisons:
      • Rank ordering
      • Paired comparisons
      • Forced distributions

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 3 how do organizations develop a quality workforce6
Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce?
  • 360° feedback
    • Occurs when superiors, subordinates, peers, and even internal and external customers are involved in the appraisal of a jobholder’s performance
  • Work-life balance
    • How people balance career demands with personal and family needs
    • Progressive employers support a healthy work-life balance
  • Contemporary work-life balance issues:
    • Single parent concerns
    • Dual-career couples concerns
    • Family-friendliness as screening criterion used by candidates

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 4 how do organizations maintain a quality workforce
Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce?
  • Compensation and benefits
    • Base compensation: Salary or hourly wages
    • Flexible benefits
      • Employees can select a set of benefits within a certain dollar amount
  • Pay for performance
    • Paying people for performance is consistent with:
      • Equity theory
      • Expectancy theory
      • Reinforcement theory
    • Merit pay
      • Awards a pay increase in proportion to individual performance contributions
      • Provides performance contingent reinforcement

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 4 how do organizations maintain a quality workforce1
Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce?

Bonus pay plans

  • One-time payments based on the accomplishment of specific performance targets or some extraordinary contribution
  • Profit-sharing plans
    • Some or all employees receive a proportion of net profits earned by the organization
  • Gain-sharing plans
    • Groups of employees share in any savings realized through their efforts to reduce costs and increase productivity

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 4 how do organizations maintain a quality workforce2
Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce?
  • Employee stock ownership plans
    • Employees purchase company stock directly through employer, sometimes at a discount
  • Stock options
    • Employees have the right to purchase company stock at a fixed price in the future as a performance incentive
  • Benefits: Non-monetary forms of compensation
      • Required
        • Social security
        • Unemployment insurance
        • Worker’s compensation
      • Not required. Health insurance. Retirement plans

And Paid time off

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 4 how do organizations maintain a quality workforce3
Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce?
    • Flexible benefits
      • Allow employees to choose from a set of benefits
    • Family-friendly benefits
      • Help in balancing work and nonwork responsibilities
    • Employee assistance programs
      • Help employees deal with troublesome personal problems
  • Retention
    • Keeping well trained and productive employees
  • Turnover
    • management of promotions, transfers, terminations, layoffs, and retirements

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 4 how do organizations maintain a quality workforce4
Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce?
    • Early retirement
      • Financial incentive offered to employees who retire early
    • Termination
      • Involuntary dismissal of an employee
  • Labor-management relations
    • Labor unions deal with employers on the workers’ behalf
    • Collective bargaining
      • Process of negotiating, administering and interpreting a labor contract

Management 11e Chapter 12

study question 4 how do organizations maintain a quality workforce5
Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce?
    • Employment-at-will
      • Employees can be terminated at any time for any reason
    • Wrongful discharge
      • Workers have legal protection from discriminatory firings
  • Labor-management relations
    • Labor unions deal with employers on the workers’ behalf
    • Collective bargaining
      • Process of negotiating, administering and interpreting a labor contract

Management 11e Chapter 12

the traditional adversarial view of labor management relations
The traditional adversarial view of labor-management relations

Management 11e Chapter 12

chapter 12 case
Chapter 12 Case
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