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Ag. C u. Industrial process: mining, processing - flotation, smelting - electrolysis Cu, Ag. Seismic hazards in Poland very low, but sometimes „induced seismicity” Last : 19 march 2013 Copper mine area: LUBIN. Zinc minerals in such a form are present nearly exclusively in Silesi a.

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Ag

Cu

Industrial process: mining, processing - flotation, smelting - electrolysis Cu, Ag


Seismic hazards in Poland very low,

but sometimes „induced seismicity”

Last : 19 march 2013

Copper minearea: LUBIN


Zinc minerals in such a form are present nearly exclusively in Silesia

Zinc and lead ore

Zincblende


Triassic sediments : dolomite

Zinc and lead ore : massive-, breccia, impregnation~ 3% Zn,< 2% Pb

Minerals : galena PbS, sphalerite ZnS, marcasite FeS2

depth : ~ 250m( 90 - 100m)

Thichness ore bodies :cm – several m

WATER INFLOW TO MINES

30 m³/min.It is necessary to pump out significant amounts of underground waters


A lithological profile of the deposit area indicates the fact that the Triassic dolomites – shally limestone, are mineralized

The deposit is at the depth of 200 – 300 metres.

Lead and zinc minerals contain some amounts of Ag, Cd, Tl.


underground melting (Frash)hole exploatation

Sulphur


Tertiary limestones : 19-27 % S

opencast mining (in the past)


Rock salt

in salt dome


⇦ Cu

4 salt cyclothems Z1-Z4 located in the roof of copper deposit


Lignite

Miocene

Opencast


3

1

today

2


Bełchatówlignite deposit

Power station - 4 320 MW

Resources ~ 2 mld tare enough for 2032

production 38,5 Mio. t/a

overburden100-120 mln m³/r

water 190 Mln. t/a

Thickness: ~55 m (100 m)

Pola górnicze: "Bełchatów", "Szczerców" i "Kamieńsk„mine field.


Cross section Bełchatow.

1 – Sand, 2 – Shale, mud, 3 – Border Q-Tr, 4 – Lignite, 5 – Salt


Landfillreclamation


Turoszów lignite deposit

Thickness : ~52,0m

~12 Mio. T/a

Area : ~66 km2

Overburden : thickness of the coal seam: 2,6:12032-2040


SIENIAWA underground lignite mine

Glacierfolded theCoal Seams


Coal quality parameters

Resources

Calorificvalue

Sulphur

Ash


Hydrocarbons

Petroleum and natural gas


1853 pharmacist Ignacy Łukasiewicz switched on the first oil lamp in a hospital in Lvov (this city is in Ukraine now, till the World War Ist it was in the Galician province of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire)


Gazprom

Enter to energy security


„ Shale belt in Poland „

37 000 km², , 12% area


US Department of Energy (2011) estimated shale gas reserves ~22,45 bln m³ (10¹²)

5,3 bln m³ possible

Polish Geological Institute PIG – PIB (2014)

Estimated reserves 346-768 mld m³

(109)


Bituminuos (hard) coal in Poland


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