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Ag. C u. Industrial process: mining, processing - flotation, smelting - electrolysis Cu, Ag. Seismic hazards in Poland very low, but sometimes „induced seismicity” Last : 19 march 2013 Copper mine area: LUBIN. Zinc minerals in such a form are present nearly exclusively in Silesi a.

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Ag

Cu

Industrial process: mining, processing - flotation, smelting - electrolysis Cu, Ag


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Seismic hazards in Poland very low,

but sometimes „induced seismicity”

Last : 19 march 2013

Copper minearea: LUBIN


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Zinc minerals in such a form are present nearly exclusively in Silesia

Zinc and lead ore

Zincblende


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Triassic sediments : dolomite

Zinc and lead ore : massive-, breccia, impregnation~ 3% Zn,< 2% Pb

Minerals : galena PbS, sphalerite ZnS, marcasite FeS2

depth : ~ 250m( 90 - 100m)

Thichness ore bodies :cm – several m

WATER INFLOW TO MINES

30 m³/min.It is necessary to pump out significant amounts of underground waters


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A lithological profile of the deposit area indicates the fact that the Triassic dolomites – shally limestone, are mineralized

The deposit is at the depth of 200 – 300 metres.

Lead and zinc minerals contain some amounts of Ag, Cd, Tl.


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underground melting (Frash)hole exploatation

Sulphur


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Tertiary limestones : 19-27 % S

opencast mining (in the past)


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Rock salt

in salt dome


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⇦ Cu

4 salt cyclothems Z1-Z4 located in the roof of copper deposit


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Lignite

Miocene

Opencast


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3

1

today

2


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Bełchatówlignite deposit

Power station - 4 320 MW

Resources ~ 2 mld tare enough for 2032

production 38,5 Mio. t/a

overburden100-120 mln m³/r

water 190 Mln. t/a

Thickness: ~55 m (100 m)

Pola górnicze: "Bełchatów", "Szczerców" i "Kamieńsk„mine field.


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Cross section Bełchatow.

1 – Sand, 2 – Shale, mud, 3 – Border Q-Tr, 4 – Lignite, 5 – Salt


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Landfillreclamation


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Turoszów lignite deposit

Thickness : ~52,0m

~12 Mio. T/a

Area : ~66 km2

Overburden : thickness of the coal seam: 2,6:12032-2040


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SIENIAWA underground lignite mine

Glacierfolded theCoal Seams


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Coal quality parameters

Resources

Calorificvalue

Sulphur

Ash


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Hydrocarbons

Petroleum and natural gas


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1853 pharmacist Ignacy Łukasiewicz switched on the first oil lamp in a hospital in Lvov (this city is in Ukraine now, till the World War Ist it was in the Galician province of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire)


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Gazprom

Enter to energy security


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„ Shale belt in Poland „

37 000 km², , 12% area


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US Department of Energy (2011) estimated shale gas reserves ~22,45 bln m³ (10¹²)

5,3 bln m³ possible

Polish Geological Institute PIG – PIB (2014)

Estimated reserves 346-768 mld m³

(109)


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Bituminuos (hard) coal in Poland


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