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Chapter 2: Organizing DataPowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 2: Organizing Data

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### Chapter 2: Organizing Data

Section 2: Frequency Distribution and Histograms

Frequency Distribution

- Lists the number of occurrences for each category of data

Classes

- Categories of data created by using
intervals of numbers

- Usually 5 to 15 classes.

The difference between consecutive lower class limits

To find the class width…

1. largest data value – smallest data value

desired number of classes

2. Increase result to next whole number

Class Widthwithin the class.

The largest value

within the class .

Class LimitsUpper Class Limit

Lower Class Limit

frequency is listed,

found by dividing the

frequency (f) of each

class by the sum of all

the frequencies (n).

class frequency (f)

total of all frequencies (n)

Relative Frequency DistributionClass Mark (Mid-Point)

- The number halfway between the lower and upper class limits of a class.
To find the class mark…

lower class limit + upper class limit

2

Graphic representations of (Grouped) Frequency Distributions

- Histogram- A type of bar graph.
- Horizontal axis represents classes by labeling

the class boundaries

- vertical axis represents frequency or relative

frequency

- no space between bars

· - bars must be the same width

- width of bar represents a quantitative value,

rather than a category

Class Boundary

- the halfway point between the upper limit of one class and the lower limit of the next class
- used as endpoints of the bars in a histogram

Fr equency

Frequency Polygon

- type of line graph, horizontal axis labeled with class marks, vertical axis represents frequencies

Relative frequency distribution for Scores on a Scientific Achievement Test

Relative frequency distribution for Scores on a Scientific Achievement Test

Uniform/Rectangular Distribution Achievement Test

Bell Shaped/Symmetrical Distribution Achievement Test

Skewed to the Left Distribution Achievement Test

Skewed to the Right Distribution Achievement Test

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