Chapter 2 organizing data
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Chapter 2: Organizing Data PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 2: Organizing Data. Section 2: Frequency Distribution and Histograms. Frequency Distribution. Lists the number of occurrences for each category of data. Classes. Categories of data created by using intervals of numbers Usually 5 to 15 classes.

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Chapter 2: Organizing Data

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Chapter 2 organizing data

Chapter 2: Organizing Data

Section 2: Frequency Distribution and Histograms


Frequency distribution

Frequency Distribution

  • Lists the number of occurrences for each category of data


Classes

Classes

  • Categories of data created by using

    intervals of numbers

    • Usually 5 to 15 classes.


Class width

The difference between consecutive lower class limits

To find the class width…

1. largest data value – smallest data value

desired number of classes

2. Increase result to next whole number

Class Width


Class limits

The smallest value

within the class.

The largest value

within the class .

Class Limits

Upper Class Limit

Lower Class Limit


Relative frequency distribution

the relative

frequency is listed,

found by dividing the

frequency (f) of each

class by the sum of all

the frequencies (n).

class frequency (f)

total of all frequencies (n)

Relative Frequency Distribution


Class mark mid point

Class Mark (Mid-Point)

  • The number halfway between the lower and upper class limits of a class.

    To find the class mark…

    lower class limit + upper class limit

    2


Graphic representations of grouped frequency distributions

Graphic representations of (Grouped) Frequency Distributions

  • Histogram- A type of bar graph.

    - Horizontal axis represents classes by labeling

    the class boundaries

    - vertical axis represents frequency or relative

    frequency

      - no space between bars

    ·      - bars must be the same width

    - width of bar represents a quantitative value,

    rather than a category


Class boundary

Class Boundary

  • the halfway point between the upper limit of one class and the lower limit of the next class

    • used as endpoints of the bars in a histogram


Chapter 2 organizing data

Three Classes

Fr equency


Histogram examples cont

Histogram Examples (Cont).

frequency

Five Classes

TenClasses

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

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Frequency polygon

Frequency Polygon

  • type of line graph, horizontal axis labeled with class marks, vertical axis represents frequencies


Frequency polygon1

Frequency Polygon


Relative frequency distribution for scores on a scientific achievement test

Relative frequency distribution for Scores on a Scientific Achievement Test


Relative frequency distribution for scores on a scientific achievement test1

Relative frequency distribution for Scores on a Scientific Achievement Test


Uniform rectangular distribution

Uniform/Rectangular Distribution


Bell shaped symmetrical distribution

Bell Shaped/Symmetrical Distribution


Skewed to the left distribution

Skewed to the Left Distribution


Skewed to the right distribution

Skewed to the Right Distribution


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