9-11 and the War on Terrorism History and Ideology Some slides and information from the work of Mary Habeck Associate Professor of Military History Yale University. Islam - Ancient religion of 1.5 billion people - Diversity of beliefs, practices, and politic
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9-11 and the War on TerrorismHistory and IdeologySome slides and information from the work of Mary Habeck Associate Professor of Military HistoryYale University
Kaaba (Cube) is the center of the holiest place of worship in Islam (Submission)
(Quran; 2:125) We have rendered the shrine (the Ka`aba) a focal point for the people, and a safe sanctuary. You may use Abraham's shrine as a prayer house. We commissioned Abraham and Ismail: "You shall purify My house for those who visit, those who live there, and those who bow and prostrate."
(Quran; 2:127) As Abraham raised the foundations of the shrine, together with Ismail (they prayed): "Our Lord, accept this from us. You are the Hearer, the Omniscient.
Chosen by God, like the Hebrew prophets, to preach the oneness of God, repentance, submission to God, and a coming day of judgment
The Salaf, as Islam was practiced during the first three generations of Muslims.
Abū Bakr 632-34
Alī is revered by Sunni Muslims as the last of the four Rightly Guided Caliphs and an authority on the Qur'an and Islamic Law.
Shi'a consider him the First Imam appointed by the Prophet Muhammad and the first rightful caliph. Ali was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. SHIA is short for šī at Ali "the party of Ali". Shia Muslims adhere to the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad and the religious guidance of his family who they refer to as Ahl al-Bayt. Ali is killed by the followers of Uthman in a Civil War and the Umayyads rule the Caliphate.
Umayyad Dynasty 661 – 750 (Battle of Karbala 680)
The Caliphate grew rapidly Under the Umayyads. Damascus as its capital. This made it one of the largest unitary states in history. (Africa, Europe, and Asia).
He refused to swear allegiance to Yazid, the second Umayyad Caliph. He tried to travel from Medina to Kufa but was surrounded by forces loyal to Yazid in the desert at a place now known as Karbala. Outnumbered, most of the family of Mohammad are slaughtered.
Muharram, first month of the Islamic calendar. Muslims commemorate the martyrdom of Husayn, (Imam) the grandson of the Prophet Mohammad and spiritual leader of the Shi'a people.
The captive women and children of the family of Mohammad are paraded in
chains from town to town. This contributed to the end of Yazid's rule. The tragedy played an enormous role in the development of Shi'a identity. The story of Husayn and the killing of the family of Mohammad heavily influenced the rapid spread of Shi'a Islam.
Ashura, the 10th day of Muharram commemorating the day of the massacre.
Abbasid Dynasty 750-1258
Shifted the capital from Damascus to Baghdad.
Went into decline with the rise to power of the Turkish army it had created, the Mamluks.
Their rule was finally ended in 1258, when Hulagu Khan, the Mongol conqueror, sacked Baghdad. While they continued to claim authority in religious matters from their base in Egypt, the dynasty's secular authority had ended.
The Middle East, c. 1190
Saladin's empire and its vassals shown in red
Territory taken from the Crusader states 1187-1189 shown in pink.
Light green indicates Crusader territories surviving Saladin's death.
Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. 1200
Their military campaigns were brutal and their influence on Eurasian culture was significant.
The Mongols destroyed the Islamic empires that existed before they came and three new imperial powers were made possible by the discovery and exploitation of gunpowder and more efficient administration.
Three Muslim Empires
The Ottoman Empire (1299 to 1922 Turkish)
The Safavids (1501 to 1736 Iranian) Established Shi'a Islam as Iran's official religion and united its provinces under a single Iranian sovereignty.
The Mughal Empire (1526 to 1857) Indian subcontinent, then known as Hindustan, and parts of what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan.
By the end of the 19th century, all three had declined significantly, and by the early 20th century, with the Ottomans' defeat in World War I, the last Muslim empire dissolved.
Transformed the Middle East in ways it had not seen for centuries.
Maps Geoffrey Gaudreault, NPR; Source: A History of the Arab Peoples by Albert Hourani
Oxford-bred British Army officer who unites the desert-dwelling Arabian Bedouins against the Turks during World War I.
Changing Middle East Map
Links to Maps of the Muslim World 661-1500
Vast Collection of Historical Maps
The Oslo Accords 1993
The Oslo accords are the foundation on which current peace negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians are based.
Oslo 2 Interim Agreement 1995
A second stage of autonomy for the Palestinians, giving them self-rule in the cities of Bethlehem, Jenin, Nablus, Qalqilya, Ramallah, Tulkarm, parts of Hebron and 450 villages, while allowing Israeli-guarded Jewish settlements to remain.
"Salafi" is an umbrella term for adherents of a particular form of Islamic revivalism who vary amongst themselves as to its definition, but share a rejection of contemporary Islamic teachings in favor of a return to the Salaf, as Islam was practiced during the first three generations of Muslims.
Confronts Egyptian politicians and involved in assassinations – Disbanded in 1948 by Egyptian Govt. Many go to Saudi Arabia to study
Becomes clandestine and lays the foundations for al-Qaeda – Innovation and Secrecy
Today its outreach is world wide and politically connected
Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, Ph.D. (1941–1989)
Azzam galvanized the Muslim masses to wage an international holy war against all infidels and non-believers until the enemies of Islam were defeated.
His strategies led to the development of the al-Qaida militant movement.
“The love of jihad [holy war] took
over my life, my soul, my sensations, my heart and my emotions. If preparing [for jihad] is terrorism, then we are terrorists…”
Since the 1960s, King Faisal of Saudi Arabia had welcomed exiled teachers from Syria, Egypt, and Jordan, so that by the early 1970s it was common to find many Saudi high school and university teachers who had become involved with exiled dissident members of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Hamas poster, taken from a CD distributed by the Islamic Block, the Hamas student movement at the American
University in Jenin – West Bank 2003
Hamas -Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization that currently forms the majority party of the Palestinian National Authority
"God is its target, the Prophet is its model, the Qur'an its constitution: Jihad is its path and death for the sake of God is the loftiest of its wishes."
There is only one God
Only he has the right to be worshiped
- Anyone who worships another god is sinning and after death, he will be judged by God.
There is only one God
Only he has the right to be worshiped and obeyed
- Anyone who obeys the laws created by a human being is committing idolatry and must be killed.
TAWHID – THE ONENESS OR UNITY OF ALLAH
Struggle and war
Jihad as an “internal individual duty” and “external communal duty”
Today: jihad is an internal struggle and defensive (just) war
Jihad as primarily fighting
Jihad has become an “individual duty” for all Muslims
The internal jihad is a Sufi fraud
Today: jihad is individual duty;
Tomorrow: jihad will be a communal duty
War plans (following the sira or life of Muhammad):
Implicated in the 1981 assassination of Egyptian president Anwar Sadat.
Killed dozens in series of attacks on tourists in 1992-1993.
Claimed responsibility for the 1992 assassination of an outspoken critic of militant Islam.
Suspected in failed June 1995 attempt to assassinate Egyptian President Mubarak in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Killed 9 German tourists in a September 1997 ambush in front of Cairo's Egyptian Museum.
Militants associated with the group killed 62 western tourists and Egyptian nationals in a November 1997 attack on southern town of Luxor.
On December 24, 2000, a series of explosions took place in Indonesia, which were part of a high-scale terrorist attack by the Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiyah terrorist networks. The attack involved a series of coordinated bombings of churches in Jakarta and eight other cities.
If al-Qa‘ida could attack the U.S. it would.