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Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality. Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) Jenkens Activity Survey (Type A/Type B) NEO Personal Inventory (Big 5). Big Five Personality Traits. Extroversion

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Measuring personality
Measuring Personality

  • Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

  • Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)

  • Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI)

  • Jenkens Activity Survey (Type A/Type B)

  • NEO Personal Inventory (Big 5)


Big five personality traits
Big Five Personality Traits

  • Extroversion

  • Neuroticism

  • Openness to Experience

  • Conscientiousness

  • Agreeableness

    OCEAN

    McCrae & Costa, 1990


Extroversion
Extroversion

  • Extroverts: High sociability, impulsiveness, like parties, crave excitement, focused on outer world, more friends

  • Introverts: quiet, reserved, reflective, like to think things through before speaking, focused within Cetola & Prinkey, 1986

  • “introverts are habitually in a state of greater arousal than extraverts, and consequently they show lower sensory thresholds, and greater reactions to sensory stimulation.” Eysenck & Eysenck, 1969

  • Lemon Test

  • Stereotypes of introverts/extroverts?


Wundt s hedonic curve
Wundt’s Hedonic Curve

Adapted from Cetola & Prinkey, 1986



Neuroticism
Neuroticism

  • Unsociable

  • Withdrawn

  • Wish to indulge in social activity but fear of being rejected takes over

    • Different from introversion

  • Anxiety, self-consciousness, emotionally unstable

  • High: anxious, hostile, self-conscious, and impulsive McCrae & Costa, 1990

  • Opposite: Emotionally stable

    Eysenck & Eysenck, 1969


Openness to experience
Openness to Experience

  • High

    • “Receptiveness to new ideas, approaches, experiences” (p.41-42)

    • Intellectually curious

    • Often appreciates art, literature, travel

    • More likely to hold unconventional beliefs

    • “free spirits”

  • Low

    • Prefer the familiarand practical

    • Resists change

    • Not necessarily close minded or intolerant of others

      McCrae & Costa


Conscientiousness
Conscientiousness

  • High

    • Achievement-orientated

    • Organized, dutiful, high level of motivation

    • Workaholics?

  • Low

    • Easy-going

    • Less exacting with themselves and with others

    • Slackers?


Agreeableness
Agreeableness

  • Generous and trusting of others and want everyone to get along

  • Optimistic

  • Opposite: Antagonism

    • Tough-minded, non-accommodating of others

    • Place the interest of themselves above the interest of others

    • Often seen as uncooperative

      Which of these would you want your surgeon to be? Lawyer?

      Does this have anything to do with face theory?


Opposites attract
Opposites Attract?

  • Marriage partners often have similarities (religion ethnicity, attraciveness, values) but complimentary personalities McCrae & Costa, 1990

  • Personality more important than other factors in predicting marital adjustment

  • Difference-detecting mechanisms Buss, 1996

  • I’m Outgoing and She’s Reserved: The Reciprocal Dynamics of Personality in Close Friendships in Young Adulthood Nelson, Thorne, & Shapiro, 2011

    • Interpersonal Theory

    • Self Expansion Theory

      Overall, “a series of compromises and adaptations evolve over a period of time” (p. 160) in any successful relationship McCrae & Costa, 1990


Desirable personalities
Desirable Personalities

  • In a long- term mate

    • Extroversion- ambitious about career

    • Neuroticism- emotionally stable

    • Agreeableness- kind

    • Conscientiousness- dependable, hardworking

    • Openness- intelligent, open-minded, creative

      Buss, 1996


Desirable personalities1
Desirable Personalities

  • In a friendship

    • Extroversion- bold, self-confident, ambitious about career

    • Neuroticism- emotionally stable

    • Agreeableness- kind

    • Conscientiousness- hardworking, dependable

    • Openness- open- minded, creative, intelligent, wide range of knowledge

      Buss, 1996


Undesirable personalities
Undesirable Personalities

  • Low on agreeableness

    • Neglect, verbal abuse, physical abuse, sexual infidelity, inconsiderateness, self-centeredness

  • Emotionally unstable (neurotic)

    • Possessive, jealous, dependent, abusive, inconsiderate, physically self-absorbed, self centered


Other undesirable personalities
Other Undesirable Personalities

  • Low Conscientiousness

    • High instances of sexual infidelity, especially men

  • Low Openness

    • Sexualizing of others

    • “treating members of the opposite sex as sex objects; commenting about the attractiveness of others; expressing sexual desire for a movie star” (Buss, 1996).


Personality and sexual infidelity
Personality and Sexual Infidelity

  • Buss, 1996

  • 100 married couples- took personality test as newlyweds and questioned 4 years later

  • Low Conscientious men AND women likely to cheat

  • Women high in openness to experiences likely to cheat

  • Submissive partners are likely to be cheated on


Nonverbal communication and personality
Nonverbal Communication and Personality

When it comes to conversational distance:

  • Extraverts- likely to choose to sit opposite of other person and avoid positions that would put them at an angle

  • Introverts- choose positions that would keep that at more of a distance (visually and physically) sit diagonally

    Knapp & Hall, 2006


Nonverbal communication and personality1
Nonverbal Communication and Personality

  • Dominant people show more eye contact than submissive people

  • Extraverted, Agreeable, and Open people show more gazing activity (eye contact) than other personalities Knapp & Hall, 2006

  • What does this mean for relationships?

    • Flirting?


Nonverbal communication and personality2
Nonverbal Communication and Personality

  • Is there a relationship between personality/temperament and certain body types?

  • Some people believe there is a correlation


I feel most of the time _____, _________, and ______

  • Calm

  • Anxious

  • Cheerful

  • Contented (often content. Happy or at ease)

  • Relaxed

  • Confident

  • Tense

  • Impetuous (impulsive)

  • Complacent (self-satisfied)

  • Reticent (reserved- don’t say everything you know)

  • Energetic

  • Self-conscious


When I study or work I seem to be ______, ______, and ___________.

  • Efficient

  • Enthusiastic

  • Reflective

  • Placid (calm, quiet)

  • Sluggish

  • Competitive

  • Leisurely

  • Meticulous

  • Precise

  • Determined

  • Thoughtful

  • cooperative


Socially i am and
Socially, I am ____, _____, and ________. ___________.

  • Outgoing

  • Affable (shows warmth and friendliness)

  • Tolerant

  • Gentle-tempered

  • Considerate

  • Awkward

  • Affected (emotionally moved easily)

  • Soft-tempered

  • Argumentative

  • Shy

  • Talkative

  • Hot-tempered


I am rather and
I am rather ____, ______, and ____. ___________.

  • Active

  • Warm

  • Domineering

  • Introspective

  • Forgiving

  • Courageous

  • Suspicious

  • Cool

  • Sympathetic

  • Serious

  • Soft-hearted

  • Enterprising


Other people consider me rather and
Other people consider me rather ___, _____ and _______. ___________.

  • Generous

  • Adventurous

  • Withdrawn

  • Dominant

  • Optimistic

  • Affectionate

  • Reckless

  • Detached

  • Sensitive

  • Kind

  • Cautious

  • Dependent


Pick one of each three
Pick one of each three ___________.

  • Assertive, relaxed, tense

  • Hot-tempered, cool, warm

  • Withdrawn, sociable, active

  • Confident, tactful, kind

  • Dependent, dominant, detached

  • Enterprising, affable, anxious


Section a
Section A ___________.

  • Forgiving

  • Sympathetic

  • Soft-hearted

  • Generous

  • Affectionate

  • Kind

  • Sociable

  • Soft-tempered

  • Warm

  • Affected

  • Tolerant

  • Dependent

  • Calm

  • Relaxed

  • Complacent

  • Contented

  • Sluggish

  • Placid

  • Leisurely

  • Cooperative

  • Affable


Section b
Section B ___________.

  • Dominant

  • Cheerful

  • Confident

  • Energetic

  • Impetuous

  • Efficient

  • Enthusiastic

  • Competitive

  • Determined

  • Outgoing

  • Hot Tempered

  • Argumentative

  • Talkative

  • Active

  • Domineering

  • Courageous

  • Enterprising

  • Adventurous

  • Reckless

  • Assertive

  • optimistic


Section c
Section C ___________.

  • Detached

  • Tense

  • Anxious

  • Reticent

  • Self-Conscious

  • Meticulous

  • Reflective

  • Precise

  • Thoughtful

  • Considerate

  • Shy

  • Awkward

  • Cool

  • Suspicious

  • Introspective

  • Serious

  • Cautious

  • Tactful

  • Sensitive

  • Withdrawn

  • Gentle-tempered


6 5 10
6 5 10 ___________.

Wells & Siegel (1961) stereotypes about personalities of people with different body types Knapp & Hall, 2006


  • Buss, D. M. (1996). The five- factor model of personality: Theoretical perspectives. J. S. Wiggins (Ed.) New York: The Guilford Press.

  • Cetola, H., & Prinkey, K. (1986). Introversion-extraversion and loud commercials. Psychology and Marketing, 3, 123-132.

  • Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. (1969). Personality structure and measurement. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited.

  • Knapp, M. L., & Hall, J. A. (2006). Nonverbal communication in human interaction (6th ed.) Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.

  • McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1990). Personality in adulthood. New York: The Guilford Press.

  • Nelson, P. A., Thorne, A., & Shapiro, L.A. (2011). I’m outgoing and she’s reserved: The reciprocal dynamics of personality in close friendships in young adulthood. Journal of Personality, 79 (5), p. 1113-1147.


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