MOTIVATION. 2013. How we motivate ourselves to take action is one of the keys to long-term success. (Canfield, 2005; Krauss, 2002; Smith, 2004). Motivation defined. m otive : a stimulus that moves a person to behave in ways designed to accomplish a goal
How we motivate ourselves to take action is one of the keys to long-term success. (Canfield, 2005; Krauss, 2002; Smith, 2004)
What motivates you?
Which do you find most inspiring? Why?
NEEDS give rise to DRIVES
DRIVES: forces that motivate us to act
NEEDS & DRIVES
biological need for food
hunger = drive
Theories of motivation focus on either INTERNAL or EXTERNAL influences on behavior
DRIVE – REDUCTION THEORY
Our bodies seek homeostasis – an balanced internal state
(reduced tension caused by needs)
-An increase in body temperature causes physiological response
-Hunger drive causes you to get a snack.
Applies to many biological drives but others??
Nesting in birds
instinct: an unlearned, inherited fixed pattern of behavior
theory proposed much of human behavior is controlled by a variety of instincts
Dogs shaking off
Crying & sucking reflex in babies
Sea turtles to sea after hatching
Lorenz and Imprinting
Problems with Instinct Theory
Doesn’t explain behavior
ex. human aggressive behavior is caused by the instinct aggression
* Most behavior “caused” by instincts is actually learned & shaped by experience. (ex. Aggression)
Motivated to increase or decrease levels of arousal
THE AROUSAL THEORY
Yerkes Dodson Law
Research indicates that animals & people perform best when their nervous system is at an optimum level of arousal
We all have a different need for excitement or arousal, and we are motivated by activities that help us achieve this level.
The “Goldilocks” principle of motivation – too sleepy OR too nervous perform poorly…
Intrinsic motivators: desire to perform well for your own sake, for fun, or because it is interesting to YOU
Extrinsic motivators: desire to perform because of a promised reward or threat of punishment
Research of Deci & Ryan proposed if people extrinsic rewards for behavior people find satisfying less creative & productive
“motivational crowding out”
Deci & Ryan’s research had flaws…if rewarding people extrinsically for doing something they are already motivated to do decreases their productivity...why should anyone receive pay raises, promotions, or bonuses?
Self-determination theory: you can have a combination of both intrinsic & extrinsic motivators at work/school BUT the most satisfying are those that allow you to feel most in control of your behavior
THE MORE AUTONOMY YOU FEEL...THE MORE SELF-DIRECTED YOU ARE
THE MORE SATISFIED YOU’LL BE
If you feel events are controlled by factors outside your self (external)…less satisfied.
One way to develop intrinsic motivation:
Think about it: Who controls your fate?
Internality, Chance, and Powerful Others Scale
Your Task: In your journal, record the results from the self-test on Internality & Chance.
-Do you agree with results? Why or why not?
-What’s your “take away” from this test?
-How might it relate to your own motivation?
Any stimulus you think has either a positive or negative outcome for you will be an incentive
Value of incentives change over time
Excerpt describing a point in Daniel Pink’s book Drive
Good marketing strategies cause you to want something you neither have nor thought you needed.