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### Chapter 9

The IS—LM/AD—AS Model: A General Framework for Macroeconomic Analysis

Goals of Chapter 9

- A) Combine the labor market (Chapter 3), the goods market (Chapter 4), and the asset market (Chapter 7) into a complete macroeconomic model (for a closed economy)
- B) the IS-LM model was originally a Keynesian model
- C) Using one model for both approaches (the classical model and the Keynesian model)

I. The FE Line: Equilibrium in the Labor Market (Sec. 9.1)

- A) In the discussion of the labor market in Chapter 3, equilibrium in the labor market leads to employment at its full-employment level and output at B) labor market equilibrium is unaffected by changes in the real interest rate (Figure 9.1)
- C) Factors that shift the FE line
- 1. is determined by the full-employment level of employment and the current levels of capital and productivity; any change in these variables shifts the FE line
- 2. Summary Table 11 lists the factors that shift the full-employment line

II. The IS Curve: Equilibrium in the Goods Market (Sec. 9.2)

- A) The goods market clears when desired investment equals desired national saving
- 1. Adjustments in the real interest rate bring about equilibrium
- 2. the goods market is in equilibrium
- 3. Derivation of the IS curve from the saving-investment diagram (Figure 9.2)

B) Factors that shift the IS curve

- 1. Any change that reduces desired national saving relative to desired investment shifts the IS curve up and to the right
- 2. Similarly, a change that increases desired national saving relative to desired investment shifts the IS curve down and to the left
- 3. An alternative way of stating this is that a change that increases aggregate demand for goods shifts the IS curve up and to the right
- 4. Summary Table 12 lists the factors that shift the IS curve

III. The LM Curve: Asset Market Equilibrium (Sec. 9.3)

- A) The interest rate and the price of a nonmonetary asset
- 1. The price of a nonmonetary asset is inversely related to its interest rate or yield
- 2. For a given level of expected inflation, the price of a nonmonetary asset is inversely related to the real interest rate
- B) The equality of money demanded and money supplied
- 1. Equilibrium in the asset market requires that the real money supply equal the real quantity of money demanded
- 2. Real money supply is determined by the central bank and isn’t affect by the real interest rate
- 3. Real money demand falls as the real interest rate rises
- 4. Real money demand rises as the level of output rises
- 5. The LM curve
- 6. By what mechanism is equilibrium restored?
- 7. The LM curve shows the combinations of the real interest rate and output that clear the asset market

C) Factors that shift the LM curve

- 1. Any change that reduces real money supply relative to real money demand shifts the LM curve up
- real interest rate is shown as an upward shift of the LM curve
- 2. Similarly, a change that increases real money supply relative to real money demand shifts the LM curve down and to the right
- 3. Summary Table 13 lists the factors that shift the LM curve
- 4. Changes in the real money supply
- 5. Changes in real money demand

IV. General Equilibrium in the Complete IS-LM Model (Sec. 9.4)

- A) When all markets are simultaneously in equilibrium there is a general equilibrium
- 1. This occurs where the FE, IS, and LM curves intersect (Figure 9.7)
- B) Applying the IS-LM framework: A temporary adverse supply shock
- 1. Suppose the productivity parameter in the production function falls temporarily
- 2. The supply shock reduces the marginal productivity of labor, hence labor demand
- 3. There’s no effect of a temporary supply shock on the IS or LM curves
- 4. Since the FE, IS, and LM curves don’t intersect, the price level adjusts, shifting the LM curve until a general equilibrium is reached
- 5. The inflation rate rises temporarily, not permanently
- 6. Summary: The real wage, employment, and output decline, while the real interest rate and price level are higher

C) Application: Oil price shocks revisited

- 1. Does the IS-LM correctly predict the results of an adverse supply shock?
- 2. The data from the 1973–1974 and 1979–1980 oil price shocks shows the following
- a. As discussed in Chapter 3, output, employment, and the real wage declined
- b. Consumption fell slightly and investment fell substantially
- c. Inflation surged temporarily
- d. All the above results are consistent with the theory
- e. But the real interest rate did not rise during the 1973–1974 oil price shock (though it did during the 1979–1980 shock)

V. Price Adjustment and the Attainment of General Equilibrium (Sec. 9.5)

- A) The effects of a monetary expansion
- 1. An increase in money supply shifts the LM curve down and to the right
- 2. Because financial markets respond most quickly to changes in economic conditions, the asset market responds to the disequilibrium
- 3. The increase in the money supply causes people to try to get rid of excess money balances by buying assets, driving the real interest rate down
- 4. The adjustment of the price level
- 5. Trend money growth and inflation

B) Classical versus Keynesian versions of the IS-LM model

- 1. There are two key questions in the debate between classical and Keynesian approaches
- 2. Price adjustment and the self-correcting economy
- 3. Monetary neutrality
- a. Money is neutral if a change in the nominal money supply changes the price level proportionately but has no effect on real variables
- b. The classical view
- c. Keynesians

VI. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply (Sec. 9.6)

- A) Use the IS-LM model to develop the AD-AS model
- 1. The two models are equivalent
- 2. Depending on the issue, one model or the other may prove more useful
- a. IS-LM relates the real interest rate to output
- b. AD-AS relates the price level to output
- B) The aggregate demand curve
- The AD curve shows the relationship between the quantity of goods demanded and the price level when the goods market and asset market are in equilibrium

2. Factors that shift the AD curve

- Any factor that causes the intersection of the IS and LM curves to shift to the left causes the AD curve to shift down and to the left
- Summary Table 14: Factors that shift the AD curve
- (1) Factors that shift the IS curve up and to the right and thus the AD curve up and to the right as well
- (a) Increases in future output (Yf), wealth, government purchases (G), or the expected future marginal productivity of capital (MPKf)
- (b) Decreases in taxes (T) if Ricardian equivalence doesn’t hold, or the effective tax rate on capital ()
- (2) Factors that shift the LM curve down and to the right and thus the AD curve up and to the right as well
- (a) Increases in the nominal money supply (M) or in expected inflation (e)
- (b) Decreases in the nominal interest rate on money (im) or the real demand for money

C) The aggregate supply curve

- 1. The aggregate supply curve shows the relationship between the price level and the aggregate amount of output that firms supply
- 2. In the short run, prices remain fixed, so firms supply whatever output is demanded
- 3. Full-employment output isn’t affected by the price level, so the long-run aggregate supply curve (LRAS) is a vertical line at Y = in Figure 9.12
- 4. Factors that shift the aggregate supply curves
- a. The SRAS curve shifts whenever firms change their prices in the short run
- b. Anything that increases shifts the LRAS curve right; anything that decreases shifts LRAS left
- c. Examples include changes in the labor force or productivity changes that affect labor demand
- D. Equilibrium in the AD-AS model

E) Monetary neutrality in the AD-AS model (Figure 9.14)

- In the short run, with the price level fixed, equilibrium occurs where AD2 intersects SRAS1, with a higher level of output
- Since output exceeds , over time firms raise prices and the short-run aggregate supply curve shifts up to SRAS2, restoring long-run equilibrium
- Money is neutral in the long run, as output is unchanged

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