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Measures of Association. 10/30/2012. Readings. Chapter 7 Tests of Significance and Measures of Association (Pollock) (pp. 169-179) Chapter 11 Doing Your Own Political Analysis (Pollock Workbook) . Homework. Some Due Today More Due 11/6 Chapter 7 Pollock Workbook Question 1

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Measures of Association

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Measures of Association



  • Chapter 7 Tests of Significance and Measures of Association (Pollock) (pp. 169-179)

  • Chapter 11 Doing Your Own Political Analysis (Pollock Workbook)


  • Some Due Today

  • More Due 11/6

    • Chapter 7 Pollock Workbook

      • Question 1

        • A, B, C, D, E, F

      • Question 2

        • A, B, C, D

      • Question 3

        -A, B, C, D

      • Question 5

        • A, B, C, D, E

Opportunities to discuss course content

Office Hours For the Week

  • When

    • Wednesday 11-1

    • Thursday 8-12

    • And appointment


Course Learning Objectives

  • Students will be able to interpret and explain empirical data.

  • As this course fulfills the Computational Skills portion of the University degree plan, students will achieve competency in conducting statistical data analysis using the SPSS software program.

Why Hypothesis Testing

  • To determine whether a relationship exists between two variablesand did not arise by chance. (Statistical Significance)

  • To measure the strength of the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable? (association)

Nominal Variables

Measures of Association

A measure of association is a single number that reflects the strength of the relationship

Measures of Association for Nominal Variables

Ordinal Variables

Measures of association






  • Strength

  • Significance

Ordinal Measures of Association

Born again


  • What Percent of Americans believe that Jesus will definitely return in the next 40 years?

  • State the full directional relationship found in the cross tab. (people who are not born again Christians are….)

An Example

  • Maurice Duverger (1957) wrote that "the simple-majority single-ballot system favors the two-party system" and that "multimember districts favor multiple parties". Hypothesis- PR systems will have more parties

    • D.V. -enpp3_democ (Effective number of parliamentary parties: 3 cats)

    • IV-pr_sys (PR system)

Another One

  • From the states.sav

  • Hypothesis- States that are more secular, will have fewer restrictions on abortion

  • DV- abortlaw3

  • IV- secularism3

Open up the States.sav and run and Ordinal Relationship!

Exporting outputs

Putting Outputs into Word

  • An Advantage of SPSS is incorporating outputs into documents

  • The best way to do this is to paste it as an image within your document

Copying From SPSS

  • Right Click on your output and choose copy

The “Paste Special Command”

  • The paste special command gives you the most options

  • Pasting as an image allows you to resize and move your output around the document

Step 1

Step 2

What Not to Do

  • DON’T Just Cut and paste

  • It is more trouble than it is worth (resizing columns, spacing, etc)

Adding a Third Variable

How to Control for a Variable?

A Third Variable

  • the relationship between two variables may be spurious, weak or even too strong

  • "controlling" for a third variable is a method of removing or separating the effects of another variable.

  • This gets at the underlying relationship

Why Add the Third Variable

  • Is there an antecedent variable at play?

  • Is the observation different for different groups of people

Marijuana and a Third Variable

  • H1: People with children will have different views on legalization than others of the same ideology

  • Cross-tabs

    • Input Row Variable

    • Input Column Variable

    • To control for a variable place it in the area that says Layer 1 of 1.

Views on Homosexuality, Party ID and Race

  • DV- homosex2

  • IV- partyid3

  • Control- race 2

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