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Measures of Association. 10/30/2012. Readings. Chapter 7 Tests of Significance and Measures of Association (Pollock) (pp. 169-179) Chapter 11 Doing Your Own Political Analysis (Pollock Workbook) . Homework. Some Due Today More Due 11/6 Chapter 7 Pollock Workbook Question 1

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Readings
Readings

  • Chapter 7 Tests of Significance and Measures of Association (Pollock) (pp. 169-179)

  • Chapter 11 Doing Your Own Political Analysis (Pollock Workbook)


Homework
Homework

  • Some Due Today

  • More Due 11/6

    • Chapter 7 Pollock Workbook

      • Question 1

        • A, B, C, D, E, F

      • Question 2

        • A, B, C, D

      • Question 3

        -A, B, C, D

      • Question 5

        • A, B, C, D, E



Office hours for the week
Office Hours For the Week

  • When

    • Wednesday 11-1

    • Thursday 8-12

    • And appointment

  • http://cookpolitical.com/


Course learning objectives
Course Learning Objectives

  • Students will be able to interpret and explain empirical data.

  • As this course fulfills the Computational Skills portion of the University degree plan, students will achieve competency in conducting statistical data analysis using the SPSS software program.


Why hypothesis testing
Why Hypothesis Testing

  • To determine whether a relationship exists between two variablesand did not arise by chance. (Statistical Significance)

  • To measure the strength of the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable? (association)


Measures of association1

Nominal Variables

Measures of Association



Measures of association for nominal variables
Measures of Association for Nominal Variables the strength of the relationship


Ordinal variables
Ordinal Variables the strength of the relationship


Measures of association2
Measures of association the strength of the relationship

Nominal

Ordinal

Strength

Significance

Direction!

  • Strength

  • Significance


Ordinal measures of association
Ordinal Measures of Association the strength of the relationship


Born again
Born again the strength of the relationship


Questions
Questions the strength of the relationship

  • What Percent of Americans believe that Jesus will definitely return in the next 40 years?

  • State the full directional relationship found in the cross tab. (people who are not born again Christians are….)


An example
An Example the strength of the relationship

  • Maurice Duverger (1957) wrote that "the simple-majority single-ballot system favors the two-party system" and that "multimember districts favor multiple parties". Hypothesis- PR systems will have more parties

    • D.V. -enpp3_democ (Effective number of parliamentary parties: 3 cats)

    • IV-pr_sys (PR system)


Another one
Another One the strength of the relationship

  • From the states.sav

  • Hypothesis- States that are more secular, will have fewer restrictions on abortion

  • DV- abortlaw3

  • IV- secularism3


Open up the states sav and run and ordinal relationship
Open up the the strength of the relationshipStates.sav and run and Ordinal Relationship!


Exporting outputs
Exporting outputs the strength of the relationship


Putting outputs into word
Putting Outputs into Word the strength of the relationship

  • An Advantage of SPSS is incorporating outputs into documents

  • The best way to do this is to paste it as an image within your document


Copying from spss
Copying From SPSS the strength of the relationship

  • Right Click on your output and choose copy


The paste special command
The “Paste Special Command” the strength of the relationship

  • The paste special command gives you the most options

  • Pasting as an image allows you to resize and move your output around the document

Step 1

Step 2


What not to do
What Not to Do the strength of the relationship

  • DON’T Just Cut and paste

  • It is more trouble than it is worth (resizing columns, spacing, etc)


How to control for a variable

Adding a Third Variable the strength of the relationship

How to Control for a Variable?


A third variable
A Third Variable the strength of the relationship

  • the relationship between two variables may be spurious, weak or even too strong

  • "controlling" for a third variable is a method of removing or separating the effects of another variable.

  • This gets at the underlying relationship


Why add the third variable
Why Add the Third Variable the strength of the relationship

  • Is there an antecedent variable at play?

  • Is the observation different for different groups of people


Marijuana and a third variable
Marijuana and a Third Variable the strength of the relationship

  • H1: People with children will have different views on legalization than others of the same ideology

  • Cross-tabs

    • Input Row Variable

    • Input Column Variable

    • To control for a variable place it in the area that says Layer 1 of 1.


Views on homosexuality party id and race
Views on Homosexuality, Party ID and the strength of the relationshipRace

  • DV- homosex2

  • IV- partyid3

  • Control- race 2


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