Measures of association
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Measures of Association. 10/30/2012. Readings. Chapter 7 Tests of Significance and Measures of Association (Pollock) (pp. 169-179) Chapter 11 Doing Your Own Political Analysis (Pollock Workbook) . Homework. Some Due Today More Due 11/6 Chapter 7 Pollock Workbook Question 1

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Measures of association

Measures of Association

10/30/2012


Readings

Readings

  • Chapter 7 Tests of Significance and Measures of Association (Pollock) (pp. 169-179)

  • Chapter 11 Doing Your Own Political Analysis (Pollock Workbook)


Homework

Homework

  • Some Due Today

  • More Due 11/6

    • Chapter 7 Pollock Workbook

      • Question 1

        • A, B, C, D, E, F

      • Question 2

        • A, B, C, D

      • Question 3

        -A, B, C, D

      • Question 5

        • A, B, C, D, E


Opportunities to discuss course content

Opportunities to discuss course content


Office hours for the week

Office Hours For the Week

  • When

    • Wednesday 11-1

    • Thursday 8-12

    • And appointment

  • http://cookpolitical.com/


Course learning objectives

Course Learning Objectives

  • Students will be able to interpret and explain empirical data.

  • As this course fulfills the Computational Skills portion of the University degree plan, students will achieve competency in conducting statistical data analysis using the SPSS software program.


Why hypothesis testing

Why Hypothesis Testing

  • To determine whether a relationship exists between two variablesand did not arise by chance. (Statistical Significance)

  • To measure the strength of the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable? (association)


Measures of association1

Nominal Variables

Measures of Association


A measure of association is a single number that reflects the strength of the relationship

A measure of association is a single number that reflects the strength of the relationship


Measures of association for nominal variables

Measures of Association for Nominal Variables


Ordinal variables

Ordinal Variables


Measures of association2

Measures of association

Nominal

Ordinal

Strength

Significance

Direction!

  • Strength

  • Significance


Ordinal measures of association

Ordinal Measures of Association


Born again

Born again


Questions

Questions

  • What Percent of Americans believe that Jesus will definitely return in the next 40 years?

  • State the full directional relationship found in the cross tab. (people who are not born again Christians are….)


An example

An Example

  • Maurice Duverger (1957) wrote that "the simple-majority single-ballot system favors the two-party system" and that "multimember districts favor multiple parties". Hypothesis- PR systems will have more parties

    • D.V. -enpp3_democ (Effective number of parliamentary parties: 3 cats)

    • IV-pr_sys (PR system)


Another one

Another One

  • From the states.sav

  • Hypothesis- States that are more secular, will have fewer restrictions on abortion

  • DV- abortlaw3

  • IV- secularism3


Open up the states sav and run and ordinal relationship

Open up the States.sav and run and Ordinal Relationship!


Exporting outputs

Exporting outputs


Putting outputs into word

Putting Outputs into Word

  • An Advantage of SPSS is incorporating outputs into documents

  • The best way to do this is to paste it as an image within your document


Copying from spss

Copying From SPSS

  • Right Click on your output and choose copy


The paste special command

The “Paste Special Command”

  • The paste special command gives you the most options

  • Pasting as an image allows you to resize and move your output around the document

Step 1

Step 2


What not to do

What Not to Do

  • DON’T Just Cut and paste

  • It is more trouble than it is worth (resizing columns, spacing, etc)


How to control for a variable

Adding a Third Variable

How to Control for a Variable?


A third variable

A Third Variable

  • the relationship between two variables may be spurious, weak or even too strong

  • "controlling" for a third variable is a method of removing or separating the effects of another variable.

  • This gets at the underlying relationship


Why add the third variable

Why Add the Third Variable

  • Is there an antecedent variable at play?

  • Is the observation different for different groups of people


Marijuana and a third variable

Marijuana and a Third Variable

  • H1: People with children will have different views on legalization than others of the same ideology

  • Cross-tabs

    • Input Row Variable

    • Input Column Variable

    • To control for a variable place it in the area that says Layer 1 of 1.


Views on homosexuality party id and race

Views on Homosexuality, Party ID and Race

  • DV- homosex2

  • IV- partyid3

  • Control- race 2


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