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# Measures of Association - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Measures of Association. 10/30/2012. Readings. Chapter 7 Tests of Significance and Measures of Association (Pollock) (pp. 169-179) Chapter 11 Doing Your Own Political Analysis (Pollock Workbook) . Homework. Some Due Today More Due 11/6 Chapter 7 Pollock Workbook Question 1

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### Measures of Association

10/30/2012

• Chapter 7 Tests of Significance and Measures of Association (Pollock) (pp. 169-179)

• Chapter 11 Doing Your Own Political Analysis (Pollock Workbook)

• Some Due Today

• More Due 11/6

• Chapter 7 Pollock Workbook

• Question 1

• A, B, C, D, E, F

• Question 2

• A, B, C, D

• Question 3

-A, B, C, D

• Question 5

• A, B, C, D, E

• When

• Wednesday 11-1

• Thursday 8-12

• And appointment

• http://cookpolitical.com/

• Students will be able to interpret and explain empirical data.

• As this course fulfills the Computational Skills portion of the University degree plan, students will achieve competency in conducting statistical data analysis using the SPSS software program.

• To determine whether a relationship exists between two variablesand did not arise by chance. (Statistical Significance)

• To measure the strength of the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable? (association)

Measures of Association

Measures of Association for Nominal Variables the strength of the relationship

Ordinal Variables the strength of the relationship

Measures of association the strength of the relationship

Nominal

Ordinal

Strength

Significance

Direction!

• Strength

• Significance

Ordinal Measures of Association the strength of the relationship

Born again the strength of the relationship

Questions the strength of the relationship

• What Percent of Americans believe that Jesus will definitely return in the next 40 years?

• State the full directional relationship found in the cross tab. (people who are not born again Christians are….)

An Example the strength of the relationship

• Maurice Duverger (1957) wrote that "the simple-majority single-ballot system favors the two-party system" and that "multimember districts favor multiple parties". Hypothesis- PR systems will have more parties

• D.V. -enpp3_democ (Effective number of parliamentary parties: 3 cats)

• IV-pr_sys (PR system)

Another One the strength of the relationship

• From the states.sav

• Hypothesis- States that are more secular, will have fewer restrictions on abortion

• DV- abortlaw3

• IV- secularism3

Open up the the strength of the relationshipStates.sav and run and Ordinal Relationship!

Exporting outputs the strength of the relationship

Putting Outputs into Word the strength of the relationship

• An Advantage of SPSS is incorporating outputs into documents

• The best way to do this is to paste it as an image within your document

Copying From SPSS the strength of the relationship

• Right Click on your output and choose copy

The “Paste Special Command” the strength of the relationship

• The paste special command gives you the most options

• Pasting as an image allows you to resize and move your output around the document

Step 1

Step 2

What Not to Do the strength of the relationship

• DON’T Just Cut and paste

• It is more trouble than it is worth (resizing columns, spacing, etc)

Adding a Third Variable the strength of the relationship

How to Control for a Variable?

A Third Variable the strength of the relationship

• the relationship between two variables may be spurious, weak or even too strong

• "controlling" for a third variable is a method of removing or separating the effects of another variable.

• This gets at the underlying relationship

Why Add the Third Variable the strength of the relationship

• Is there an antecedent variable at play?

• Is the observation different for different groups of people

Marijuana and a Third Variable the strength of the relationship

• H1: People with children will have different views on legalization than others of the same ideology

• Cross-tabs

• Input Row Variable

• Input Column Variable

• To control for a variable place it in the area that says Layer 1 of 1.

Views on Homosexuality, Party ID and the strength of the relationshipRace

• DV- homosex2

• IV- partyid3

• Control- race 2