Living and working conditions
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Living and Working Conditions. The Industrial Revolution. New Classes. New Middle Class Those who hold and invest capital Industrial entrepreneurs, merchants, professionals etc. Working Class Those who work in order to obtain capital Wage labourers

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Living and Working Conditions

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Living and working conditions

Living and Working Conditions

The Industrial Revolution


New classes

New Classes

  • New Middle Class

    • Those who hold and invest capital

    • Industrial entrepreneurs, merchants, professionals etc.

  • Working Class

    • Those who work in order to obtain capital

    • Wage labourers

    • Dependant on the daily wage in order to survive


Growth of cities

Growth of Cities

  • Great numbers of people moving into the city

  • Need to find work and housing

  • Workers need/want to live close to work

    • Homes and factories

      being built in close

      proximity to each other

    • All workers of a specific

      trade lived together

      • Ex. Mining towns


Living conditions of the working class

Living Conditions of the Working Class

  • Working class separated from the middle class

  • Barren

    • Could not afford

      luxuries or sometimes

      even necessities

  • Overcrowded

    • Numerous families

      living in one bedroom

      • 8-10 people


Living conditions of the working class1

Living Conditions of the Working Class

  • Morals

    • Appropriate for married couples and siblings to share a room

    • Inappropriate for both sexes to share a room if they have no relationship to each other

      • Overcrowded housing caused this

  • Who’s fault is it that the working class is so ‘immoral’?


Working conditions

Working Conditions

  • Family wage economy

    • Entire families working

      • Couples work with their children

      • Older children can contribute to family wage or go off on his/her own

    • All family members have economic freedom

      • Changes family dynamics


Improved or damaged

Improved or Damaged?

  • Did industrialization improve or damage the lives of ordinary people?


Improved or damaged1

Improved or Damaged?

  • No

    • About 50% of all children of working families die before the age of 5

    • Long work hours (17 hours)

    • Rapid pace of work

    • Living and working conditions

      • Dangerous, crowded and unsanitary


Improved or damaged2

Improved or Damaged?

  • Yes

    • Higher life expectancy

    • Economic freedom for women

    • Growing independence for young people


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