Chapter 6. The American revolution. Section 1. Fighting begins in the north . May 10, 1775 Second Continental Congress met to plan a way to avoid war. Delegates sent a petition to King George III
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Ethan Allen, Vermont blacksmith, lead the Green Mountain Boys in a surprise attack on Fort Ticonderoga.
The Second Continental Congress wanted to organize the makeshift army.
During the first year of fighting 6,000 British troops were surrounded in Boston by the Colonial militia.
When the Americans fired the British retreated.
The British tried the second time with same result.
The last time the British took the hill but lost 1,000 redcoats Americans only lost 400.Battle of bunker hill
1,000 loyalists went with them.
King George III ordered a blockade of all colonial ports
Blockade- the shutting of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out.
The king also used mercenaries from Germany to help in fight.
Mercenaries- troops for hire.
Urged to write an essay urging the colonists to declare independence.
June 1776 Richard Henry Lee of Virginia announced to Congress a resolution in favor of independence:
“ Resolved, That these United Colonies are and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between the and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.”
- Richard Henry Lee, Resolution at the Second Continental Congress June 7, 1776Resolution for Independence
Delegates faced a difficult decision if they declared independence.
If they fell into British hands they would be hanged as traitors.
After a long debate, Congress took the step and appointed a committee to draw up the declaration.Making the Break
Thomas Jefferson was asked to write the Declaration of Independence.
Youngest of the Continental Congress delegates.( 33 years old)
Wrote clearly and gracefully won him respectThomas Jefferson
July 2, 1776 the Continental Congress voted that all 13 colonies were “free and independent States.”
Document was adopted the night of July 4, 1776.
John Hancock the first to signSigning the Document
Copies of the Declaration of Independence were printed and distributed throughout the colonies.
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain Unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
According to the DOI people form governments in order to protect their natural rights and liberties.
Governments can only exist if they have the Consent of the governed.
If the government does not uphold this then the people can remove said government.Natural Rights
This section of the DOI lists the wrongs that Britain has done that led the colonies to break away.
“In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.”British Wrongs
“And, for the support of this declaration, with firm reliance on the protection of Devine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our freedoms, and our sacred honor.”Independence
June 1776 General Howe arrived in New York Harbor with 34,000 troops and 10,000 saliors
Washington expecting Howe’s attack led his 20,000 poorly trained troops to New York
August 1776 the Battle of Long Island more than 1,400 Americans were killed, wounded or captured.British Take New york
November 1776 Washington crossed the Hudson River into NJ, Being chased they then crossed the Delaware River into Pennsylvania
Ben Franklin persuaded Louis XVI to give guns and needed supplies to America
The Continental Army spent the winter in a makeshift camp called Valley Forge
Dear Sir: It is with great reluctance, I trouble you on a subject, which does not fall within your province; but it is a subject that occasions me more distress, than I have felt, since the commencement of the war; and which loudly demands the most zealous exertions of every person of weight and authority, who is interested in the success of our affairs. I mean the present dreadful situation of the army for want of provisions, and the miserable prospects before us, with respect to futurity. It is more alarming than you will probably conceive, for, to form a just idea, it were necessary to be on the spot. For some days past, there has been little less, than a famine in camp. A part of the army has been a week, without any kind of flesh, and the rest for three or four days.
Battle of Cowpens was an important victory for Patriot General Morgan on January 1780.
Benedict Arnold, formerly one of Americas best generals, now led the British troops in Virginia.
Arnold was angry because he felt Washington had not given him the credit he was owed for his victories.
Cornwallis did not agree with orders to send part of his troops to New York.
By the end of September 1781 16,00 American and French troops laid siege on Cornwallis’ 8,000 men.
After all that women went through they felt that they should have more rights under the law.
Several thousand black men joined the British side by the end of the war so that they could be free men.