Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas
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Chemical Nomenclature Naming compounds and writing chemical formulas. Understanding Nomenclature. Nomenclature refers to the process of naming chemicals. Initially the focus is on the most basic rules and ideas involved in the naming of compounds. I. Binary Compounds

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Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Chemical NomenclatureNaming compounds and writing chemical formulas.


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Understanding Nomenclature

Nomenclature refers to the process of naming chemicals.

Initially the focus is on the most basic rules and ideas involved in the naming of compounds.


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

I. Binary Compounds

A binary compound contains just two element

1. The element with the positive charge ( more metallic ), is written

first.

2. The element with the negative charge( more non-metallic) is written

second


Understanding nomenclature

Understanding Nomenclature

The first word (metal or positive ion) remains the same word

  • The second word(negative ion) is formed by changing the ending

    of the element name to “ide”.

  • For example: fluorine changes to fluoride, and oxygen to oxide

sodium chloride

ex:NaCl

potassium bromide

KBr


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Predicting Charges on Monatomic Ions

+1 +2 +3 +4 +5

+2 +4

-4 -3 -2 -1 0


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Cations

Anions

Formula

Name

Formula

Name

Charge

Charge

H+

hydrogen

H-

hydride

Li+

lithium

F-

fluoride

Na+

sodium

Cl-

chloride

K+

potassium

Br-

bromide

Cs+

cesium

I-

iodide

Ag+

silver

Mg2+

magnesium

O2-

oxide

Ca2+

calcium

S2-

sulfide

Sr2+

strontium

Ba2+

barium

Zn2+

zinc

Cd2+

cadmium

Al3+

aluminum

N3-

nitride

Common Monoatomic Ions

+1

-1

Common + ions

are in blue.

+2

-2

Common - ions

are in red.

+3

-3


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

1. Using the rules given , name the compounds listed below.

1. MgO ____________________2. CaI2______________________

3. BaS ____________________4. ZnI2______________________

5. CaO ____________________6. Ag2O_____________________

7. K3P ____________________8. AlBr3_____________________

9. Na3N ____________________10. MgS_____________________


Writing proper chemical formulas

Writing proper Chemical formulas.

The net charge of the formula must be zero

potassium and chlorine =

potassium chloride

1+

1-

= 0

KCl = KCl


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Using the rule given , give the formula for these compounds

12. sodium chloride ____________13. potassium iodide __________

14. magnesium sulfide __________15. aluminum bromide__________

16. strontium oxide ____________17. sodium sulfide__________

18. rubidium phosphide _________19. barium nitride__________


Crisscross method

Crisscross Method

simplified method for writing these formulas

Calcium and bromide = calcium bromide

Ca2+Br1-=0

Ca2+Br1-

2

1

Subscripts

Ca2+Br1-

1 2

2+

2-

=

0

Ca1Br2

**But we don’t write ones!!!

CaBr2


Crisscross method1

Crisscross Method

simplified method for writing these formulas

aluminum and sulfide = aluminum sulfide

Al3+S2-=0

Al3+S2-

3

2

Subscripts

Al3+S2-

2 3

6+

6-

=

0

Al2S3

Al2S3


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Groups/Families

VIIIA

IA

  • 23, 24, 23, 23, 23, 12, 2

  • 1, 2

  • 24, 13, 12

IIA

VIIA

VA

VIA

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Zn

Zn

+1

+2

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

+2

+3

+2

+4

+2

+3

+2

+3

+2

+3

+1

+2

+2

+2

+4

+3

+5

+3

Ag

Cd

I-VIIIB

+1

+2

multiple charges

Au

Pt

Hg

Hg

+2

+4

+1

+3

+1

+2


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Type II Binary Compounds

(Stock System)

Some metallic element are capable of more than one positivecharge. We will indicated these with a roman numeral in parenthesis following the name of the positive element.

Roman numeral = the + charge

iron (II) = 2+ and iron (III) = 3+

***Used only when:***

MORE THAN 1 POSITIVE CHARGE


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Copper

Cu+1

copper(I)

Cu+2

copper(II)

Co+2

cobalt(II)

Cobalt

Co+3

Fe+2

cobalt (III)

iron(II)

Iron

Fe+3

iron(III)

Pb+2

lead(II)

Lead

Pb+4

lead(IV)

Sn+2

tin(II)

Tin

Sn+4

tin(IV)

Metals With Several Oxidation States

Table 2.4 (partial)

Element

Ion Formula

Stock Name

Old School


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Type II Binary Compounds

(Stock System)

Compare FeCl2 & FeCl3

iron and chloride =

iron chloride

(II)

2+

2-

=

0

FeCl 1-

2

1

iron chloride

(III)

iron

chloride

FeCl1-

3

3+

3-

=

0

***Used only when:***

MORE THAN

1 POSITIVE CHARGE


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Type II Binary Compounds

4. Name the following compounds.

21. CuO ______________________ 22. PbS ________________________

23. HgCl ______________________ 24. MnO2 _________________________

25. Fe2S3 ______________________ 26. SnBr2 ________________________

27. BiCl3 ______________________ 28. PbCl4 ________________________


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Old School

The "ous"-"ic" System

Another method of indicating metallic ions with

more than one charge is:

a suffix

The suffix -ous is used for the lower charge.

while the suffix -icis used for thehigher ionic charge


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Copper

Cu+1

copper(I)

cuprous

Cu+2

copper(II)

cupric

Co+2

cobalt(II)

Cobalt

Co+3

Fe+2

cobalt (III)

iron(II)

ferrous

Iron

Fe+3

iron(III)

ferric

Pb+2

lead(II)

Lead

Pb+4

lead(IV

Sn+2

tin(II)

stannous

cobaltous

plumbous

Tin

Sn+4

tin(IV)

plumbic

stannic

cobaltic

Metals With Several Oxidation States

Table (partial)

Element

Ion Formula

Stock Name

Old School


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Old School

The "ous"-"ic" System

(old school)(stock)formula

29. ferric chloride_____________________________________

30. stannic oxide_____________________________________

31. mercuric iodide_____________________________________

32. cuprous oxide_____________________________________

33. plumbous sulfide_____________________________________

34. antimonic bromide ___________________________________

35. aurous phosphide_____________________________________


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

*  Chemistry trivia time:

In the James Bond movie Goldfinger who was the villian?

Auric Goldfinger

What was the license plate number on Goldfinger's Rolls Royce?

   AU3

What was the name of Goldfinger's business establishment? 

Auric Enterprises

** Mercury's name was changed because hydroargentous and hydroargentic would be just to much to handle


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Ternary Compounds

It takes “3” or more

A ternary compound contains three or more different elements.

Ternary compounds usually contain one or morepolyatomic ions ( radicals ).

Examples: Fe(ClO4)2 ; NaOH : NH4MnO4

When writing the formula – the basic rules apply.

Polyatomic ions ( radicals )are treated just like an ion.


Ex calcium hydroxide

Determining Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds

Containing Polyatomic Ions

Ex: Calcium hydroxide

Calcium and hydroxide = calcium hydroxide

Ca2+OH1-=0

Ca2+OH1-

CaOH2

2

1

Subscripts

But OH2 = H2O = water !!!

***Parentheses : need to be used whenever more than a single

polyatomic ion is needed to balance the charges

- in other words if you add a subscript put the

polyatomic radical in parentheses.

( )

Ca OH 2


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

CO3-2

carbonate

CrO4-2

chromate

OH-

hydroxide

Cr2O7-2

dichromate

chlorate

ClO3-

O2-2

peroxide

NO2-

nitrite

SO4-2

sulfate

PO4-3

NO3-

nitrate

phosphate

MnO4-

permanganate

Some Common Polyatomic Ions ( Radicals)

Formula

Formula

Name

Name

Cations

ammonium

NH4+

Common Anions

acetate

CH3COO-

CN-

cyanide


Practice with polyatomic ions

Practice with Polyatomic Ions


The ate

... the `ate

Polyatomic Ions – they all contain oxygen

-1

-2

-3

O4

O3

O3

O3

O4

O3

O4


The ate1

... the `ate

Polyatomic Ions – they all contain oxygen

-1

-2

-3

MnO3-

CO32-

PO43-

ClO3-

CrO42-

SO42-

NO3-


The ate2

... the `ate

Polyatomic Ions Oxgen

-1

-2

-3

Manana ?

Please

Chemistry

Class

Crazy

Study

Nomenclature


The ate become ites

... the `ate become… `ites

– they all lose an oxygen..

-1

-2

-3

MnO2-

CO22-

PO33-

ClO2-

CrO32-

SO32-

NO2-

but the charge remains the same


The ate the ite now the hypo

MnO-

CO2-

PO23-

ClO-

CrO22-

SO22-

NO-

... the `ate; the `ite; now the hypo-

– subtract another oxygen !!

-1

-2

-3

and the charge remains the same


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

MnO4-

CO42-

PO53-

ClO4-

CrO52-

SO52-

NO4-

... the `ate; the `ite;the hypo..

– lets add an oxygen … the Per-

-1

-2

-3

and the charge remains the same


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

`ate `ite hypo- per-

ClO4

perchlorate

ClO3

chlorate

ClO2

chlorite

hypochlorite

ClO


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Determining Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions

36. AlPO4 ______________________37. (NH4)2CO3 _______________________

38. __________ lithium cyanide39. ___________ copper(II) nitrate

40. KClO ______________________41. Zn(C2H3O2)2 ______________________

42. __________ calcium phosphate43. ___________ ammonium sulfite

44. __________ ammonium acetate45. NaMnO4 _______________________


Naming covalent molecular compounds

Naming Covalent Molecular Compounds

Nonmetal to Nonmetal( or to the right of the zigzag red line)

Use these Prefixes: Greek prefixes to indicate number

(never use mono on first)

mono - 1 di - 2 tri - 3 tetra - 4

penta - 5hexa - 6 hepta - 7 octa - 8

nona - 9 deca – 10

boron trifluoride

nitrogen monoxide

Ex: BF3NO

N2O5

dinitrogen pentoxide


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

PROBLEM:

SOLUTION:

Determining Names and Formulas of Covalent Compounds

(a) What is the formula of carbon disulfide?

(b) What is the name ofPCl5?

(c) Give the name and formula of the compound whose molecules

each consist of two N atoms and four O atoms.

CS2

(a) Carbon is C, sulfide is sulfur S and di-means 2

  • P is phosphorous, Cl is chloride, the prefix for 5 is penta-.

Phosphorous pentachloride.

  • N is nitrogen and is in a lower group number than O (oxygen).

  • Therefore the formula is:

  • and the name is:

N2O4

dinitrogen tetraoxide.


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Naming Covalent Molecular Compounds

1. CO __________________________ 8. diphosphorus pentoxide _________________

2. PBr3 ______________________________ 9. carbon dioxide _________________

3. CCl4 ______________________________ 10. selenium trioxide _________________

4. NCl3 ______________________________ 11. sulfur hexafluoride _________________

5. SeO2 ______________________________ 12. phosphorus pentiodide ________________

6. P2O3 _____________________________ 13. sulfur tribromide ________________

7. NH3 ______________________________ 14. phosphorus hexachloride______________


Naming compounds

Naming Compounds

Acids

acids - compounds that release H+ in water, must be (aq)

- usually have H+ for the cation

H+ reacts with water to produce H3O+ , called hydronium ion

1. acid's whose anions end in -ide

use hydro___ic acid

2. acid's whose anions end in -ate

use ___ic acid

3. acid's whose anions end in -ite

use ___ous acid

Ex HCl, H2CO3, HNO2, HNO3, HClO


Naming compounds1

Naming Compounds

Hydrates

hydrates – when certain compounds crystallize a particular number of water molecules are contained in the structure.

- no moisture is apparent in these compounds

water of hydration - water that is contained in hydrate

- can be removed by heating

anhydrous salt – hydrate after the water is removed

ex CuSO45H2O  CuSO4 + 5H2O

hydrat anhydrous salt water

Naming hydrates

name salt and then (greek prefix) hydrate

ex copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

PROBLEM:

Give the systematic names or the formulas for the names of the following compounds:

(a) tin(II) fluoride

(b) CrI3

(d) CoS

(c) ferric oxide

Sample Problem 2.7

Determining Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds of Elements That Form More Than One Ion

PLAN:

Compounds are neutral. We find the smallest number of each ion which will produce a neutral formula. Use subscripts to the right of the element symbol.

SOLUTION:

(a) Tin (II) is Sn2+; fluoride is F-; so the formula is SnF2.

(b) The anion I is iodide(I-); 3I- means that Cr(chromium) is +3. CrI3 is chromium(III) iodide

(c) Ferric is a common name for Fe3+; oxide is O2-, therefore the formula is Fe2O3.

(d) Co is cobalt; the anion S is sulfide(2-); the compound is cobalt (II) sulfide.


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

PROBLEM:

Give the systematic names or the formula or the formulas for the names of the following compounds:

(c) Ba(OH)2 8H2O

Sample Problem 2.8

Determining Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions

(a) Fe(ClO4)2

(b) sodium sulfite

PLAN:

Note that polyatomic ions have an overall charge so when writing a formula with more than one polyatomic unit, place the ion in a set of parentheses.

SOLUTION:

(a) ClO4- is perchlorate; iron must have a 2+ charge. This is iron(II) perchlorate.

(b) The anion sulfite is SO32- therefore you need 2 sodiums per sulfite. The formula is Na2SO3.

(c) Hydroxide is OH- and barium is a 2+ ion. When water is included in the formula, we use the term “hydrate” and a prefix which indicates the number of waters. So it is barium hydroxide octahydrate.


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

PROBLEM:

Something is wrong with the second part of each statement. Provide the correct name or formula.

Sample Problem 2.9

Recognizing Incorrect Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds

(a) Ba(C2H3O2)2 is called barium diacetate.

(b) Sodium sulfide has the formula (Na)2SO3.

(c) Iron(II) sulfate has the formula Fe2(SO4)3.

(d) Cesium carbonate has the formula Cs2(CO3).

SOLUTION:

(a) Barium is always a +2 ion and acetate is -1. The “di-” is unnecessary.

(b) An ion of a single element does not need parentheses. Sulfide is S2-, not SO32-. The correct formula is Na2S.

(c) Since sulfate has a 2- charge, only 1 Fe2+ is needed. The formula should be FeSO4.

(d) The parentheses are unnecessary. The correct formula is Cs2CO3.


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

PROBLEM:

Explain what is wrong with the name of the formula in the second part of each statement and correct it:

Sample Problem 2.12

Recognizing Incorrect Names and Formulas of Binary Covalent Compounds

(a) SF4 is monosulfur pentafluoride.

(b) Dichlorine heptaoxide is Cl2O6.

(c) N2O3 is dinitrotrioxide.

SOLUTION:

(a) The prefix mono- is not needed for one atom; the prefix for four is tetra-. So the name is sulfur tetrafluoride.

(b) Hepta- means 7; the formula should be Cl2O7.

(c) The first element is given its elemental name so this is dinitrogen trioxide.


Example of polyatomic ions

12. Chromate CrO42-

Example of polyatomic ions

  • Most common polyatomic ions


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

Groups/Families

  • 23, 24, 23, 23, 12, 2

  • 1, 2

  • 24, 13, 12

VIIIA

IA

IIA

VIIA

VA

VIA

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Zn

Zn

+1

+2

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

+2

+3

+2

+4

+2

+3

+2

+3

+2

+3

+1

+2

+2

+4

+5

+3

Ag

Cd

I-VIIIB

+1

+2

multiple charges

Au

Pt

Hg

Hg

+2

+4

+1

+3

+1

+2


Fecl 2 fe cl 2 iron ii 2

FeCl2 Fe Cl2iron (II) = 2+

Type II Binary Compounds

FeCl3 iron(III) chloride

FeCl2 iron(II) chloride FeCl2iron (II) = 2+

iron (II) = 2+ and iron (III) = 3+

***Used only when:***

MORE THAN 1 POSITIVE CHARGE


Chemical nomenclature naming compounds and writing chemical formulas

CO3-2

carbonate

CrO4-2

chromate

OH-

hydroxide

Cr2O7-2

dichromate

chlorate

ClO3-

O2-2

peroxide

NO2-

nitrite

SO4-2

sulfate

PO4-3

NO3-

nitrate

phosphate

MnO4-

permanganate

Some Common Polyatomic Ions

Formula

Formula

Name

Name

Cations

ammonium

NH4+

Common Anions

acetate

CH3COO-

CN-

cyanide


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