Aquatics. By: Taylor Edwards. The Hydrologic Cycle. Evaporation- liquid to gas Sublimation- solid to gas Evapotranspiration- water evaporates from plants or soil Condensation- water in the form of gas transforms into liquid Precipitation- rain, freezing rain, snow, sleet, or hail
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By: Taylor Edwards
Evaporation- liquid to gas
Sublimation- solid to gas
Evapotranspiration- water evaporates from plants or soil
Condensation- water in the form of gas transforms into liquid
Precipitation- rain, freezing rain, snow, sleet, or hail
Water continues moving in the form of runoff
-surface: water moving over the landscape
-receive inflow/water through: precipitation, overland runoff, ground-water seepage, tributaries
-outflow through: evaporation, discharge to ground water
-contributes to regulation of salinity of ocean
-freshwater = 3% of all water on Earth
-unsaturated zone: spaces in between soil particles are filled with water and air
-saturated zone: spaces in between soil particles are filled completely by water
What is a watershed?
Land that water flows across/through on its way to common stream, river, or lake
Functions of an effective watershed program:
-Fluvial geomorphology: structure and
dynamics of stream/river corridors
Words to know:
-amensalism: one organism is negatively effected while the other is not helped or harmed
Types of water systems:
Why is stream order important?
-size and strength of waterways
-determining organisms/life found in waterways
12 orders: 1 being the smallest, 12 the largest
When two waterways of the same order meet and combine, they form a waterway of the next order in the hierarchy.
1st order stream + 1st order stream =
2nd order stream
2nd order stream + 2nd order stream =
3rd order stream
When two waterways of a different order meet, they do not increase in order. The waterway of smaller order simply ends and feeds into the bigger waterway.
-higher order waterways
-lower order waterways (1st-2nd)
Layer of gravel, sand, limestone, sandstone
precipitation is infiltrated into the ground
Enters saturated zone
-replaces water that has evaporated/used by plants
(amount of water here will fluctuate with precipitation)
Water then flows to water table/saturated zone when plants/soil have necessary water
(spaces in rock/soil are completely filled with water)
(Generally, the deeper the rock material is, the less porous/permeable it is)
How does water leave an aquifer?
-Seeping into streams
-Pumped out by wells
-through infiltration of precipitation
-depends on depth of aquifer and rate of precipitation
(all aquifers have a layer of impermeable rock below them)
-an aquifer that is under a layer of impermeable rock
-an aquifer that is not located under a layer of impermeable rock
-can recharge nearby streams
Springs form when an aquifer becomes so full of water that the excess water spills over onto the land surface.
Classified according to:
-amount of water they discharged
-temperature of the water
-formation that they receive their water from
-forces that cause the spring
Most common dissolved mineral substances:
-some materials can be beneficial/harmless, but other materials/large concentrations are harmful
not desirable for drinking is dissolved mineral amount is more than-
Causes of Declining Groundwater Quality:
-chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides
-faulty septic-tank operation
-landfill leachates -intrusion of salt water
-observing macroinvertibrates to draw conclusions on quality/status of water and habitat
Why can these organisms help us determine stream quality?
- Are affected by physical, chemical, & biological conditions
-can’t escape pollution
-show effects of pollution
-can live from 1 to several years
-represent different trophic levels of food web
-are found in most streams
-are a food source
-are easy to collect, identify
specific characteristics at a specific time (More specific! )
-necessary to life in the water
-cool water holds more DO
-ppm = parts per million (1 ppm = one milligram of oxygen per liter of water)
-5 to 6 ppm for growth/activity
-amount of hydrogen ions in water, 6.0 to 8.2 best for most organisms
Functions of a wetland:
Wetland Values: characteristics of wetlands that are beneficial to people
Differentiating characteristics of wetlands:
-located along coastlines
-salt and freshwater
-influenced by tides, runoff, rivers, groundwater
-found in poorly-drained depressions, floodplains, and around edges of lakes/rivers
2) Swamps surface water inputs, trees and shrubs
-obtain floodwater from nearby streams/rivers
-common deciduous trees
-like forested, but are dominated by shrubs
-salt-tolerant trees, shrubs, and plants
-increase in impervious surfaces
-leaking from landfills/dumps
-domestic animals grazing
What is sublimation?
An ecosystem that forms a transition between two other ecosystems is an ___________.
Name 4 important features of a watershed.
What are the 4 types of biodiversity within a watershed?
How is a plunge pool formed?
Name 2 of the most common dissolved minerals found in groundwater.
How could a landslide cause a lake to form?
A _______ system is made up of flowing water, and a ________ system is made up of still water.
How many stream orders are there?
A 4th order waterway would be considered a _________.
What is the order of the waterway represented by the black line?
What percentage of the time does an intermittent stream flow?
When will an ephemeral stream flow?
Describe the process through which water reaches the water table/saturated zone?
Name 2 factors that effect the quality of an aquifer.
True or False-
Generally, the closer the rock is to the surface, the less permeable and porous it will be.
Name 1 way that water can leave an aquifer.
What are the 2 ways that an aquifer can be artificially refilled?
What are 3 things you can do to conserve water at home?
What is 1 reason macroinvertebrates are helpful in determining the health of a stream?
Water is not considered suitable for drinking if the dissolved mineral amount is over ________.
Georgia Envirothon Water Study Materials