Aquatics. By: Taylor Edwards. The Hydrologic Cycle. Evaporation- liquid to gas Sublimation- solid to gas Evapotranspiration- water evaporates from plants or soil Condensation- water in the form of gas transforms into liquid Precipitation- rain, freezing rain, snow, sleet, or hail
By: Taylor Edwards
Evaporation- liquid to gas
Sublimation- solid to gas
Evapotranspiration- water evaporates from plants or soil
Condensation- water in the form of gas transforms into liquid
Precipitation- rain, freezing rain, snow, sleet, or hail
Water continues moving in the form of runoff
-surface: water moving over the landscape
-receive inflow/water through: precipitation, overland runoff, ground-water seepage, tributaries
-outflow through: evaporation, discharge to ground water
-contributes to regulation of salinity of ocean
-freshwater = 3% of all water on Earth
-unsaturated zone: spaces in between soil particles are filled with water and air
-saturated zone: spaces in between soil particles are filled completely by water
What is a watershed?
Land that water flows across/through on its way to common stream, river, or lake
Functions of an effective watershed program:
-Fluvial geomorphology: structure and
dynamics of stream/river corridors
Words to know:
-amensalism: one organism is negatively effected while the other is not helped or harmed
Types of water systems:
Why is stream order important?
-size and strength of waterways
-determining organisms/life found in waterways
12 orders: 1 being the smallest, 12 the largest
When two waterways of the same order meet and combine, they form a waterway of the next order in the hierarchy.
1st order stream + 1st order stream =
2nd order stream
2nd order stream + 2nd order stream =
3rd order stream
When two waterways of a different order meet, they do not increase in order. The waterway of smaller order simply ends and feeds into the bigger waterway.
-higher order waterways
-lower order waterways (1st-2nd)
Layer of gravel, sand, limestone, sandstone
precipitation is infiltrated into the ground
Enters saturated zone
-replaces water that has evaporated/used by plants
(amount of water here will fluctuate with precipitation)
Water then flows to water table/saturated zone when plants/soil have necessary water
(spaces in rock/soil are completely filled with water)
(Generally, the deeper the rock material is, the less porous/permeable it is)
How does water leave an aquifer?
-Seeping into streams
-Pumped out by wells
-through infiltration of precipitation
-depends on depth of aquifer and rate of precipitation
(all aquifers have a layer of impermeable rock below them)
-an aquifer that is under a layer of impermeable rock
-an aquifer that is not located under a layer of impermeable rock
-can recharge nearby streams
Springs form when an aquifer becomes so full of water that the excess water spills over onto the land surface.
Classified according to:
-amount of water they discharged
-temperature of the water
-formation that they receive their water from
-forces that cause the spring
Most common dissolved mineral substances:
-some materials can be beneficial/harmless, but other materials/large concentrations are harmful
not desirable for drinking is dissolved mineral amount is more than-
Causes of Declining Groundwater Quality:
-chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides
-faulty septic-tank operation
-landfill leachates -intrusion of salt water
-observing macroinvertibrates to draw conclusions on quality/status of water and habitat
Why can these organisms help us determine stream quality?
- Are affected by physical, chemical, & biological conditions
-can’t escape pollution
-show effects of pollution
-can live from 1 to several years
-represent different trophic levels of food web
-are found in most streams
-are a food source
-are easy to collect, identify
specific characteristics at a specific time (More specific! )
-necessary to life in the water
-cool water holds more DO
-ppm = parts per million (1 ppm = one milligram of oxygen per liter of water)
-5 to 6 ppm for growth/activity
-amount of hydrogen ions in water, 6.0 to 8.2 best for most organisms
Functions of a wetland:
Wetland Values: characteristics of wetlands that are beneficial to people
Differentiating characteristics of wetlands:
-located along coastlines
-salt and freshwater
-influenced by tides, runoff, rivers, groundwater
-found in poorly-drained depressions, floodplains, and around edges of lakes/rivers
2) Swamps surface water inputs, trees and shrubs
-obtain floodwater from nearby streams/rivers
-common deciduous trees
-like forested, but are dominated by shrubs
-salt-tolerant trees, shrubs, and plants
-increase in impervious surfaces
-leaking from landfills/dumps
-domestic animals grazing
An ecosystem that forms a transition between two other ecosystems is an ___________.
Name 4 important features of a watershed. ecosystems is an ___________.
Define amensalism. ecosystems is an ___________.
What are the 4 types of biodiversity within a watershed? ecosystems is an ___________.
How is a plunge pool formed? ecosystems is an ___________.
How could a landslide cause a lake to form? groundwater.
A _______ system is made up of flowing water, and a ________ system is made up of still water.
How many stream orders are there? system is made up of still water.
A 4 system is made up of still water.th order waterway would be considered a _________.
2 system is made up of still water.
What is the order of the waterway represented by the black line?
Describe the process through which water reaches the water table/saturated zone?
Name 2 factors that effect the quality of an aquifer. table/saturated zone?
True or False- table/saturated zone?
Generally, the closer the rock is to the surface, the less permeable and porous it will be.
Name 1 way that water can leave an aquifer. table/saturated zone?
What is 1 reason macroinvertebrates are helpful in determining the health of a stream?
Water is not considered suitable for drinking if the dissolved mineral amount is over ________.
Georgia Envirothon Water Study Materials