Chapter 10
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Chapter 10. Premodern Humans. Chapter Outline. When, Where and What Premodern Humans of the Middle Pleistocene A Review of Middle Pleistocene Evolution Middle Pleistocene Culture. Chapter Outline. Neandertals: Premodern Humans of the Upper Pleistocene Culture of Neandertals

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Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Premodern Humans


Chapter outline

Chapter Outline

  • When, Where and What

  • Premodern Humans of the Middle Pleistocene

  • A Review of Middle Pleistocene Evolution

  • Middle Pleistocene Culture


Chapter outline1

Chapter Outline

  • Neandertals: Premodern Humans of the Upper Pleistocene

  • Culture of Neandertals

  • Genetic Evidence

  • Trends in Human Evolution: Understanding Premodern Humans


The pleistocene

The Pleistocene

  • The Pleistocene, often called the Ice Age, was marked by advances and retreats of massive continental glaciations.

    • At least 15 major and 50 minor glacial advances have been documented in Europe.

    • Hominids were impacted as the climate, flora, and animal life shifted.

  • Middle Pleistocene (780,000– 25,000 y.a.)

  • Upper Pleistocene (125,000–10,000 y.a.)


Changing pleistocene environments in africa

Changing Pleistocene Environments in Africa


Changing pleistocene environments in eurasia

Changing Pleistocene Environments in Eurasia

  • Green areas show regions of likely hominid occupation. Blue areas are major glaciers. Arrows indicate likely migration routes.


Key middle pleistocene premodern human h heidelbergensis fossils from africa

Key Middle Pleistocene Premodern Human (H. heidelbergensis) Fossils from Africa


Key middle pleistocene premodern human h heidelbergensis fossils from europe

Key Middle Pleistocene Premodern Human (H. heidelbergensis) Fossils from Europe


Key middle pleistocene premodern human h heidelbergensis fossils from europe1

Key Middle Pleistocene Premodern Human (H. heidelbergensis) Fossils from Europe


Key middle pleistocene premodern human h heidelbergensis fossils from asia

Key Middle Pleistocene Premodern Human (H. heidelbergensis) Fossils from Asia


Time line of middle pleistocene hominids

Time line ofMiddle Pleistocene hominids.


Review of middle pleistocene evolution 400 000 125 000 y a

Review of Middle Pleistocene Evolution (400,000-125,000 y.a.)

  • Like the erects/sapiens mix in Africa and China, fossils from Europe exhibit traits from both species.

  • Fossils from each continent differ, but the physical differences are not extraordinary.

  • There is a definite increase in brain size and a change in the shape of the skull.


Middle pleistocene tools

Middle Pleistocene Tools

  • African and European archaics invented the Levallois technique for tool making.

  • Acheulian tools are associated with hand axes.

  • Different tool traditions coexist in some areas.


The levallois technique

The Levallois Technique


Culture of neandertals

Culture of Neandertals

  • Neandertals, who lived in the cultural period known as the Middle Paleolithic, are almost always associated with the Mousterian industry.

  • In the early part of the last glacial period, Mousterian culture extended across Europe and North Africa into the former Soviet Union, Israel, Iran, and as far east as Uzbekistan and perhaps even China.


Culture of neandertals1

Culture of Neandertals

  • Neandertals improved on previous prepared-core techniques by inventing a new variation.

    • They trimmed a flint nodule around the edges to form a disk-shaped core.

    • Each time they struck the edge, they produced a flake, continuing this way until the core became too small and was discarded.

    • They then trimmed the flakes into various forms, such as scrapers, points, and knives.


Mousterian tools

Mousterian Tools


Settlements

Settlements

  • People of the Mousterian culture lived in open sites, caves, and rock shelters.

  • Windbreaks of poles and skin were placed at the cave opening for protection against severe weather.

  • Fire was used for cooking, warmth, light, and keeping predators at bay.


Subsistence

Subsistence

  • Remains of animal bones demonstrate that Neandertals were successful hunters.

  • Used close-proximity spears for hunting (spear thrower and bow and arrow weren’t invented until the Upper Paleolithic).

  • Patterns of trauma in Neandertal remains match those of contemporary rodeo performers, indicating close proximity to prey.


Symbolic behavior

Symbolic Behavior

  • Prevailing consensus has been that Neandertals were capable of articulate speech.

  • Even if Neandertals did speak, they did not have the same language capabilities of modern Homo sapiens.


Burials

Burials

  • Neanderthals buried their dead.

  • Their burials included grave goods like animal bones and stone tools.

  • They placed the bodies of their dead in a flexed position.


Key neandertal fossil discoveries

Key Neandertal Fossil Discoveries


Cultural contrasts neandertals and upper paleolithic modern humans

Cultural Contrasts: Neandertals and Upper Paleolithic Modern Humans


Cultural contrasts neandertals and upper paleolithic modern humans1

Cultural Contrasts: Neandertals and Upper Paleolithic Modern Humans


Cultural contrasts neandertals and upper paleolithic modern humans2

Cultural Contrasts: Neandertals and Upper Paleolithic Modern Humans


Cultural contrasts neandertals and upper paleolithic modern humans3

Cultural Contrasts: Neandertals and Upper Paleolithic Modern Humans


Three major evolutionary transitions

Three Major Evolutionary Transitions

  • Transition from early Homo to H. erectus. Geographically limited to Africa and occurred rapidly.

  • Transition of H. erectus grading into early H. sapiens. Not geographically limited, but occurred slowly and unevenly.

  • Transition from Archaic H. sapiens to anatomically modern H. sapiens.


Quick quiz

Quick Quiz


Chapter 10

1. The evolution of the genus Homo over the last two million years

  • can be divided into at least three major transitions.

  • has been fairly steady.

  • has been uniform over the different geographic regions.

  • can be clearly interpreted unlike the evolution of the Australopithecines.


Answer a

Answer: a

  • The evolution of the genus Homo over the last two million years can be divided into at least three major transitions.


Chapter 10

2. With regard to the evolution of the genus Homo, most paleoanthropologists

  • agree that two or three different species of archaic sapiens existed.

  • agree that all members of the genus should be lumped into one species.

  • agree that Homo erectus should also be included in the species sapiens.

  • have differing opinions regarding the interpretation of the fossil material.


Answer d

Answer: d

  • With regard to the evolution of the genus Homo, most paleoanthropologists have differing opinions regarding the interpretation of the fossil material.


Chapter 10

3. Paleoanthropologists study the sudden expansion of modern Homo sapiens. One problem they have is explaining what happened to the _________________ .


Answer neandertals

Answer: Neandertals

  • Paleoanthropologists study the sudden expansion of modern Homo sapiens. One problem they have is explaining what happened to the Neandertals.


Chapter 10

4. Neandertals used fire routinely.

  • True

  • False


Answer true

Answer: True

  • Neandertals used fire routinely.


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