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Etiology of Breast Cancer: with special attention to environmental factors. By: Saad Almasoud , Lamya Alomair , Amir Shams. George Mason University Spring 2013. B reast anatomy I. 1-ribs: 2-pectoralis muscle 3-chest wall 4-coopers ligaments 5-small ducts and acini
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SaadAlmasoud , LamyaAlomair, Amir Shams
George Mason University Spring 2013
5-small ducts and acini
Lymph nodes lateral and inferior to the pectoralis minor muscle
Lymph nodes under the pectoralis minor muscle
Lymph nodes under and deep to the pectoralis minor muscle
1-The lateral border of the Pectoralis Minor and Major muscle
2-The Latissimus Dorsi Muscle
3-The Axillary Vein
4-The Long Thoracic Nerve which innervates the Serratus Anterior Muscle
5-The Thoraco-Dorsal Nerve which innervates the Latissimus Dorsi Muscle
6-The Intercostal Brachial Nerve which is a sensory nerve for the inferior aspect of the arm and the posterior aspect of the axilla
7-The Lateral Pectoral Nerve which innervates portions of the pectoralis muscle
Engorged Vs. Non lactating
Mastitis is inflammation of the breast. It is most often caused by a breast infection that affects women who are breast-feeding, but it can happen in any woman. A break in the skin or an opening in the nipple can allow bacteria to enter the breast duct, where they can grow. The body\'s white blood cells release substances to fight the infection. This causes swelling and increased blood flow. The area may become painful, red, and warm to the touch. Other symptoms can include fever and a headache.
Mastitis is treated with antibiotics. In some cases, a breast abscess (a collection of pus) may form. Abscesses are treated by draining the pus, either by surgery or by using a needle (often guided by ultrasound), and then giving antibiotics.
Having mastitis does not raise a woman\'s risk of developing breast cancer. But an uncommon type of cancer known as inflammatory breast cancer has symptoms that are a lot like mastitis and can be mistaken for an infection. If you are diagnosed with mastitis but antibiotic treatment does not help, a biopsy of the skin may be needed to be sure it is not cancer. Inflammatory breast cancer can spread quickly, so do not put off going back to the doctor if you still have symptoms after antibiotic treatment.
Fat necrosis is a condition in which painless, round, firm lumps caused by damaged and disintegrating fatty tissues form in the breast tissue. Fat necrosis often occurs in women with very large breasts or in response to a bruise or blow to the breast. This condition may also be the result of a lumpectomy and radiation from a previous cancerous lump. In some cases, physicians/care providers will watch the lump through several menstrual cycles, and may perform a mammogram before deciding whether or not to remove it. These lumps are not malignant and there is no reason to believe that they increase a woman\'s risk of cancer.
any new and abnormal growth, specifically one in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled and progressive. Neoplasms may be benign or malignant.
DCIS is a type of early breast cancer confined to the inside of the ductal system.
IDC is the most common type of breast cancer representing 78% of all malignancies. These lesions appear as stellate (star like) or well-circumscribed (rounded) areas on mammograms. The stellate lesions generally have a poorer prognosis.
Infiltrating lobular carcinoma is a type of breast cancer that usually appears as a subtle thickening in the upper-outer quadrant of the breast. This breast cancer type represents 5% of all diagnosis. Often positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, these tumors respond well to hormone therapy.
2009 Estimated US Cancer Deaths*
Lung & bronchus 30%
Colon & rectum 9%
Liver & intrahepatic 4%bile duct
Urinary bladder 3%
Non-Hodgkin 3% lymphoma
Kidney & renal pelvis 3%
All other sites 25%
26% Lung & bronchus
9% Colon & rectum
3% Uterine corpus
2% Liver & intrahepatic bile duct
25% All other sites
ONS=Other nervous system.
Source: American Cancer Society, 2009.
Number of Cancer Deaths
Source: US Mortality Data, 1930-2006, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, 2009.
all drugs that have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use as a breast cancer treatment.
5-Vinorelbine ex. Navelbine
6-Other Chemotherapy drugs
treat breast cancer that has spread to the bone.
focus on blocking the actions of certain normal body proteins that allow cancer cells to grow and divide.
Studies in migrants have shown increases in breast cancer incidence and mortality following migration from a lower- to a higher-risk country.(12–14)
For example, Japanese immigrants in Los Angeles County had a clearly higher rate of breast cancer than Japanese in Japan.(12)
Furthermore, the incidence of breast cancer in first-generation Japanese immigrants in Sao Paulo from 1968 to 1978 was higher than that among Japanese living in Japan
, whereas mortality increased from 1979 to 2001 to a rate intermediate between that of Japanese living in Japan and Brazilians living in the state of Sao Paulo.(13,14)
These findings strongly suggest that breast cancer risk is influenced by factors associated with the lifestyle or environment of the destination country.
Including nurses, teachers, beauticians, airline attendants, lab technicians, telephone and telegraph operators, electronic workers, agriculture workers, leather and fur processors, glass manufacturing workers, and metal fitters and assemblers (Aronson et al., 1999; Band et al., 2000; Gardner et al., 2002; Peplonska et al., 2007; Teitelbaum et al., 2003).
High exposures to ionizing radiation related to medical diagnosis or treat- ment was associated with breast cancer (Doody et al., 2000; National Academy of Sciences, 2005). Women with benign breast disease or a family history of breast cancer may have increased breast cancer risk following relatively low-level exposure to ionizing radiation (Hill et al., 2002).
Most widely used herbicide in the US
*Source: Asplein, 1999
Logistic Regression Analysis on NHANES Questionnaire